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Margaret Naumburg papers

Ms. Coll. 294

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University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts
Naumburg, Margaret, b. 1890
Margaret Naumburg papers
Date [inclusive]:
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Ms. Coll. 294
182 boxes
Margaret Naumburg (1890–1983) was an American psychologist, educator, artist, and author. She was one of the first proponents of art therapy and utilitzed art as a method for both diagnosis and therapy. The collection contains materials documenting all the phases of Naumburg's long and productive work life. The materials include correspondence; copies of and materials for Naumburg's writings, lectures, and exhibit catalogs; materials for case studies; lecture notes for the courses she taught and papers her students wrote in those courses; and work by others that she collected and saved. Other media in the collection include slides, photographs, and audio recordings.
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Margaret Naumburg papers, Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts, University of Pennsylvania
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Margaret Naumburg was born in New York City on May 14, 1890, when the United States was poised almost exactly between the Civil War and World War I. Sigmund Freud, whose work would affect her life so profoundly, would not use the term "psychoanalysis" for another five years, and the American medical establishment was not yet aware of his work. In her life Naumburg had two prominent careers based on Freud's insights into the workings of the human psyche. In the first, she played an important role in the progressive education movement in the United States through her founding of the Walden School, where psychoanalytic principles were central. In the second, she was a pioneer in the emerging field of art therapy.

This future teacher's memories of public school were very bleak:

My earliest recollections of school are of the hard wooden benches, the rigid posture, often hands behind the back, and the enforced silence of school periods. The overactive, dominant, shrill teacher, and the meek and intimidated children. I still recall the relief when gongs rang and there was a break from the silent tension for lunch and the playground. The monotony of learning arithmetic and learning to read was broken by learning to sing scales to the teacher's pitch-pipe. Art meant drawing cubes and pyramids. [1]

She then went to the Horace Mann School, a private school which was founded as a site for experimental efforts by the students of Teachers College. The change seems to have made little difference to her. School was one source of bleakness in a generally grim childhood. She recalled wishing, at the age of ten or twelve,  "to penetrate and experience the life outside herself. For other people's lives seemed full and varied, her own, empty and monotonous." As an adolescent, she captured her  "attitude of injured withdrawal" by putting up on her wall the motto,  "In order to avoid criticism, do nothing, say nothing, be nothing." She had two older sisters, Alice and Florence, and a younger brother, Robert. Her relationship with her mother was very difficult, and although she was fond of her father, his presence in her papers is minimal. Under these circumstances, she looked up to Florence, eight years older, as a substitute mother. Florence was beautiful and artistic, two qualities Margaret would long for throughout her life. At a time of reflection in the 1920s, Margaret would confess that she had wanted to be Florence.[2]

Barnard College awarded Margaret Naumburg a B.A. in 1912. She had studied with philosopher John Dewey, whose educational principles would later be important to her as a contrast to her own priorities as an educator. A future career in education was far from her mind then: "When I graduated from college I thought that the one profession I must avoid was becoming an educator. This attitude had been engendered by my own sense of boredom and futility in so many of the courses I endured both in school and college." [3] Her ambitions were unclear, yet in the spring of her senior year she was finding her way into new currents of thought. She read an early article in  McClure's Magazine about Maria Montessori's work in Italy.[4] She also  "had through a friend been able to read one of the first papers, published in the United States, by Dr. A. A. Brill on Freud and psychoalysis [sic]. I did not realize, as yet, how deeply this psychoanalytic approach to the unconscious had won a response in my own unconscious." [5]

Her plan for the fall of 1912 was to start graduate work at the London School of Economics. During the intervening summer, she and her mother traveled in Europe. In Italy they met Montessori, who had opened a school based on sense training and attention to the phases of early childhood development in 1906 and begun training teachers in 1909. At first the London School of Economics seemed to be the right place for Naumburg. Taking a seminar with Sidney Webb, she threw herself into a study of the young cinematography industry. She sent her parents an enthusiastic letter: "these three months in London, including the work and the people, meant more to me than my four years of college." [6] After those three months, however, she decided to leave in order to take advantage of an opportunity to study with Montessori in Italy.

In January 1913, she traveled there with fifteen Englishwomen. They were the first foreigners to undergo Montessori training. Naumburg, who could admire deeply but was also fiercely independent, wanted very much to be in the forefront in everything she did. She wrote her parents that she felt "quite sure it's the chance of a lifetime to be able to get into this work when it is still just at the start." [7] Again it started off well, but the sense of satisfaction did not last. Naumburg's enthusiasm for the Montessori method waned and a personality conflict arose between these two intellectual, strong-willed women. Naumburg later recalled,  "I saw a good deal of her personally in the first part of the course. Later in the term when she took me for a drive with her she asked me why I had withdrawn from her and I told her the truth. That I found her authoritarian in imposing her ideas and was not concerned with accepting everything she said without question." [8]

Later in the year she was back in New York. Waldo Frank, her future husband, wrote of her at this time in his memoirs: "Margaret was a beautiful woman, dark, with great luminous eyes and a dynamic compassion that was not ready to settle for less than a totally new world. She had just returned from Rome where she studied primary education with Maria Montessori... she spoke of Freud as if there stirred in her a prescience of the psychological revolution Freud would bring to the world in the next five decades." [9] The first letters from Naumburg to Frank in the Waldo Frank Papers date from 1914, at which time the two are clearly already involved in an intense relationship. They married in 1916.

According to Frank, he was introduced to Naumburg by their mutual friend Claire Raphael. Raphael was Naumburg's partner in her earliest educational efforts. Together they ran a Montessori class at the Henry Street Settlement during the 1913-1914 school year. From 1914 to 1916, they ran a Montessori class at the Leete School, where they rented a room. During 1915 they were also conducting a Montessori class at Public School No. 4 in the Bronx. The New York City Board of Education approved this class as an experiment. However, after months of struggling to get supplies and even heat from the school system, Naumburg resigned in January 1916. After the two years at the Leete School, Naumburg, now without Raphael, moved The Children's School into its own home and added grades to continue to teach the children who had started in the kindergarten. Sometime after the 1921-1922 school year, the students objected to being described as children and the school became the Walden School.

During the years from 1914 to 1917, Margaret Naumburg was undergoing Jungian analysis with Beatrice Hinkle. Florence, who by then was married to lawyer and poet Melville Cane and was an art teacher at the school, also worked with Hinkle. Naumburg encouraged all Walden teachers toward analysis. In 1917 she published an article titled "A Direct Method of Education." On a typescript of the article, she later wrote,  "This published in 1917 was as far as I know the first application of the principles of psychoanalysis to Education." In it she argued the need for change and the opportunity which psychoanalysis provided:

Up to the present, our methods of education have dealt only with the conscious or surface mental life of the child. The new analytic psychology has, however, demonstrated that the unconscious mental life which is the outgrowth of the child's instincts plays a greater rôle than the conscious... This discovery of the fundamental sources of thought and action must bring about a readjustment in education. School problems can no longer be dealt with as they appear on the surface, for our deeper knowledge must direct our attention to the deeper realities beneath.[10]

A. A. Brill, the psychiatrist whose article on Freud she had read years earlier, became a parent at the school, and Naumburg sought additional analysis with him.

By 1922 Naumburg was exhausted. The fund-raising efforts necessary to keep the Children's School running had little to do with education. She wrote a letter to parents indicating that she would close the school. The parents at the school did not want it to close. Naumburg, however, began to withdraw and turned the direction of the school over to Margaret Pollitzer and C. Elizabeth Goldsmith, teachers at Walden.

Naumburg was also dealing with the birth of her son Thomas in 1922. Her feelings about motherhood were profoundly ambiguous, not least because her marriage to Frank was disintegrating. In Frank's words, "We had wanted to live openly together because we loved each other. She was an educator of whom 'respectability' was expected; therefore we had to be married. But it was understood between us that we were not really married. And I kept the matter clear by my infidelities, of which I always told her. The birth of my first son changed my heart; I wanted now to be truly married to my wife. But it was too late; she had suffered too much." [11] Adding to the strains on their marriage was Naumburg's relationship with the author Jean Toomer. After a year of correspondence with Frank, Toomer moved to New York City in May 1923. Soon after, he met Naumburg and they quickly formed an intense bond. In 1924, Naumburg and her son shifted to Reno, where she had to establish residency for six months before she could get a divorce. Shortly after Naumburg arrived in Reno, Toomer joined her. They had decided to test the experience of living together as if married before marrying. In July, however, he left for New York City and stayed there briefly before leaving for France to learn from a man in whom both he and Naumburg were intensely interested.[12]

Before leaving for Reno, they had attended a dance performance by the followers of Georges Ivanovitch Gurdjieff. Gurdjieff was a writer, dance teacher, philosopher, and guru, born in Russian Armenia and relocated to France by way of Central Asia. ̶ "The Work," as the efforts and focus of Gurdjieff's followers were called, was for a time highly fashionable among the intellectual and literary Greenwich Village set, which included Naumburg, Toomer, and Frank. Naumburg's divorce was final in Sept ember 1924. Upon her return she became increasingly involved in the New York Gurdjieffian community, which was under the guidance of A. R. Orage.

Gurdjieff promoted personal development through bringing the intellectual, emotional, and instinctual centers of the self together into harmony. The disciplines that would help followers attain this goal included self-observation, Gurdjieff's sacred da nces, and study. Naumburg's Gurdjieffian period is well represented in the collection and reveals her personal thoughts to an unusual degree because of the group's emphasis on "formulation," the effort to observe and write about one's thoughts, emotions, actions, and reactions in a detached way. Several formulations from the winter of 1924 and spring of 1925 are preserved. They focus intently on Toomer, who otherwise does not appear in the collection. She noted a lessening of intensity in their relationship in January, and in May she described racial tensions in their relationship, particularly those arising from Tommer's leadership of a Gurdjieffian group in Harlem. In 1926 their relationship ended.

In addition to leading the groups in which followers worked on their development, Orage gave lecture series on literature in order to earn money to support Gurdjieff and his work. These developed into workshops for writers. Naumburg attended lectures in 1927 and 1928. Both Melville Cane and Toomer were attenders as well. No explicit link connects these workshops and Naumburg's writings, but after a year of lectures and workshops, Orage suggested that each participant publish an article or book on a sub ject well known to him or her.[13] This is at exactly the time when Naumburg wrote The Child and the World, her first book, published in 1928. Each chapter is a dialogue meant to enlighten readers about the workings of a modern school, certainly a subject Naumburg knew well. Also at this time Naumburg began work on  Sunflower and Cypress, a play about Vincent and Theo van Gogh, of which she would draft numerous versions and which she continued to revisit throughout her life.

Two to three years later, Naumburg severed her ties to both Gurdjieff and Orage. In the place of that community she became involved in another occult group, Pojodag House. Pojodag drew on alchemy, astrology, mediums, and a combination of ancient Egyptian myth and Christian religious elements. Naumburg's younger brother Robert and her sister and brother-in-law Florence and Melville Cane were all involved at Pojodag House. All these individuals then shifted to the trance medium Eileen Garrett. As 1933 began, Margaret was "sitting" with Garrett, that is, meeting with Garrett and recording her words spoken while in a trance.

Garrett was born in Ireland and had worked as a trance medium at the British College of Psychic Science and other spiritualist societies. She came to New York City for six months in 1931 under the auspices of the American Society for Psychical Research, then returned in 1933.[14] Naumburg made and saved transcripts of many discussions with three "control" personalities, referred to as Uvani, Tehuti, and Abdul Latif, through the person of Garrett, referred to in these discussions as  "the instrument." Naumburg and others in the circle around Garrett considered themselves serious researchers, because rather than attempting through an otherworldly connection to obtain information about or contact dead relatives, they were pursuing questions of occult knowledge and higher consciousness. One characteristic of this investigative approach was the keeping of detailed records of their sittings.

Naumburg's collaboration with Garrett throughout the 1930s passed through several stages. Naumburg accompanied Garrett to laboratory studies of her mediumistic abilities conducted by researchers in England and by J. B. Rhine of Duke University's parapsychology laboratory. Naumburg also gathered materials in hopes of writing a scientific and psychological book about Garrett. In this period she was generally negative about psychology because the field did not accept or accommodate the aspects of consciousness with which she was concerned. She consulted Tehuti about everything, including both her creative writing and the writing she undertook in cooperation with Garrett; social relationships; the possible development of her own psychic abilities; and her future direction.

In 1934 Edward Hall began to share Naumburg's appointments with Garrett. He faced severe financial difficulties including debts and tax suits, but he was also part of a business that supplied materials for arts and crafts programs. He and Naumburg planned to start an arts and crafts school and Naumburg worked on a plan for an exhibition of art of the Western Hemisphere called "The Three Americas" in order to raise money for the school. The exhibition, meant to travel, only took place in an abbreviated form in Mexico City. It cannot have raised much, if any, money. The Universal School of Handicrafts did open, and Naumburg served on its Board of Directors until she withdrew in 1942.

Toward the end of the decade, Naumburg devoted her efforts to gathering autobiographical information from Garrett. In a later letter to Rhine, Naumburg claimed that she had not only organized but written Garrett's autobiography, My Life as a Search for the Meaning of Mediumship. She was also to have written an introduction under her own name, but had the whole project taken from her to preserve the illusion of Garrett's authorship. For unclear reasons, a complete break between the two women followed by 1940. This must have been a very difficult time for Naumburg. She was separated from the person and the projects around which she had organized her life for the previous ten years. Yet in this time she somehow conceived of and moved toward her second career in art psychotherapy.

Naumburg did not have recognized training in this field and she could not present herself as a professional therapist, although her principles as an educator had been built on psychology. So she took her first steps from the foundation of education, the field in which she was recognized, by seeking opportunities to combine art education and psychotherapy through art. Although she tended to portray herself as working in isolation, if not in opposition to the world, the topic of art as therapy was receiving increasing attention at that time. In 1941 Anne Anastasi and John Foley published a four-part survey of literature on "artistic behavior in the abnormal." The first three parts are in Naumburg's resource materials as reprints. In 1943 Naumburg joined the Committee on Art in American Education and Society, a group based at the Museum of Modern Art. They had an art therapy study group, from whose lecture series Naumburg saved some outlines.

An increasing interest in occupational therapy inspired by the entry of the United States into World War II and the resulting injuries also fed interest in art therapy. Because occupational therapists wanted military status for their role in working with the war wounded, the Public Education Committee of the American Occupational Therapy Association was publicizing occupational therapy nationally.[15] Naumburg's relationship with the field of occupational therapy was an imbalanced one. Throughout much of her career, she would be dismissive about the methods of occupational therapy, yet occupational therapists were in general an audience receptive to her ideas. Aspiring occupational therapists bolstered her art therapy course enrollments in the 1950s and 1960s, and Naumburg received and accepted invitations to address professional gatherings of occupational therapists.

One of Naumburg's earliest lectures on psychotherapy was given at the 1941 Annual Institute of Chief Occupational Therapists in New York. She was invited by Eleanor Slagle, director of the Bureau of Mental Hygiene Occupational Therapy for the State of New York Department of Mental Health and fellow board member of the Universal School of Handicrafts. Attempting to bridge the fields of education and psychotherapy, Naumburg titled her talk, "Can Modern Educational Principles Be of Use to Psychotherapists?" She told the occupational therapists,  "Those who work in the field of mental hygiene and those active in modern education, should no longer be kept apart by the barriers of their professional training... For those who enter the world of education, I have, for years, been a persistent advocate of more training in psychiatry, and I hope that I shall not fail to persuade you, in the field of mental hygiene, to recognize some important implications in the new education." [16] Her attempt to be interdisciplinary was not entirely successful: the text of the lecture was rejected by  Mental Hygiene magazine with the comment that it was  "better adapted to an educational journal." [17]

Naumburg began the decade by briefly working at Bellevue Hospital. Her original contact there was Harriet Ayer Seymour. In the late 1930s Seymour had been one of those who consulted Garrett's controls, once sitting jointly with Naumburg, and had already at that time been interested in music therapy. In 1940 she was head of the Music Committee of the Hospitals. Naumburg worked with children under psychiatrist Lauretta Bender and with adolescent boys in a drama therapy group under psychiatrist Frank Curran. Then, however, in 1941 at a meeting of occupational therapists, she met Nolan D. C. Lewis, the primary mentor and champion of her early art therapy career.[18] Lewis was already interested in art expression and psychotherapy, having published two articles on art in psychiatric treatment, and he was interested in what Naumburg had to say. He invited her to do research at the New York Psychiatric Institute, where he was director.

By October 1941, Naumburg was working with three young boys who were patients there During her time at the Psychiatric Institute, she worked with one boy diagnosed with Froehlich's syndrome and another with tic-like movements, but mainly the boys were institutionalized because they were uncontrollable. Their files reported their diagnoses as "Primary Behavior Disorder." Naumburg paid to provide pastels, tempera paints, and plasticine for the children. Appalled by the repetitive, unimaginative nature of the art produced in school art programs (including the school program at the Institute), Naumburg worked to get the children to produce images  of their own - images based on their experiences, dreams, and fantasies. She kept minutely detailed records of what happened in each session, including her conversations with the boys, descriptions of their art work, and the boys' comments about their art.

The art was full of violent images inspired by their perceptions of World War II. In 1943 Naumburg published her first art therapy article, "Children's Art Expression and War," in  The Nervous Child. In the next few years, Naumburg shifted from working with young boys to work with a succession of schizophrenic adolescent girls, and she published a series of articles based on her case studies done at the Psychiatric Institute. In  "A Study of the Art Work of a Behavior-Problem Boy as It Relates to Ego Development and Sexual Enlightenment," [19] Naumburg included a photograph of clay figures created by the patient to depict pregnancy. The next photograph (Fig. 10) shows an  "ancient Mexican-Aztec figure of the Goddess of Childbirth... [which] suggests the kinship in feeling and expression between the archaic and child-like forms of art." Connecting patients' spontaneous art and ancient or primitive art was of interest to Naumburg throughout her art therapy career, an inclination present already in her work with her first patients.

She collected her first six articles into a book, Studies of the "Free" Art Expression of Behavior Problem Children and Adolescents as a Means of Diagnosis and Therapy in 1947. It was published in the Nervous and Mental Disease Monographs series, of which Lewis was series editor. He wrote a foreword for the book, describing Naumburg's work as  "progressive steps in a type of research that promises much for the future." [20] In a review, education writer Agnes Benedict praised the work but also raised the specter of the creation of  "amateur therapists" :  "The book will be invaluable to parents and teachers in helping them to understand the behavior of normal children without encouraging them to turn amateur psychotherapist, or to read meanings into children's art work that are not there." [21] The perception that Naumburg wanted to train therapists outside established channels would recurin her career and hamper her progress.

Because of the highly visual nature of her records, Naumburg also used exhibits throughout her career to try to bring her work to the attention of a wider professional audience. She showed her first exhibit at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association in 1946 and worked on two exhibit projects in 1947. She was an exhibitor at the Fifth International Congress of Pediatrics in New York. Her exhibit, "Art Therapy in Diagnosis and Treatment of Behavior Problem Children," was captured with touches of skepticism or parody in  "The Talk of the Town" in the July 26, 1947,  New Yorker:

Next, attracted by some vivid paintings and crayon drawings entitled "City Fire,"  "Burning Leaves,"  "Automobile on Fire,"  "Burning of the Normandie,"  "Fireworks at the World's Fair," and  "Bozo, the Fire-Eater," we paused before a booth marked  "Art Therapy in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Behavior Problem Children."  "These pictures were all done by a nine-year-old boy with a compulsive neurosis and a fire-setting proclivity," the lady in charge was saying to a bug-eyed young man.  "Note the fire-eater at the circus saying 'Yum, yum.' Isn't that amusing symbolically?"

"Troubled Waters," an exhibition tracing the work and progress of one of the schizophrenic girls with whom Naumburg had worked, was planned for the Philadelphia Museum of Art. After only one month on display, however, the exhibition was taken down at Naumburg's insistence, because she did not agree with the presentation of her work.

Meanwhile, Naumburg's practice was shifting away from work in an institutional setting with children and adolescents to the private treatment of adults in her apartment, meeting with them weekly or even more often. A short-lived collaboration studying hard-of-hearing and stuttering children through Vassar College's Department of Child Study led to a meeting between Naumburg and a Vassar student who would be the subject of one of Naumburg's most thoroughly developed case studies. This young woman, who first approached Naumburg because of interest in art therapy and then sought help for obsessive masturbation, worked with Naumburg for three years. Naumburg would produce two exhibits, "The Psychotherapeutic Significance of the Art Productions of a College Girl" and  "The Survival Value of Fantasy Projection," and a book,  Psychoneurotic Art, based on the case. Over the years, several would-be students of art therapy who sought out Naumburg became her clients first, because she believed that aspiring therapists must have therapy to deal with their own conflicts before they could deal effectively with others. It was the same principle she had a pplied to herself and the teachers at the Walden School.

As the 1950s began, art therapy was beginning to be more widely recognized as a field and Margaret Naumburg was beginning to be recognized as one of its most important figures. A Newsweek article about the 1949 exhibit,  "The Psychotherapeutic Significance of the Art Productions of a College Girl," proclaimed,  "Art therapy - the use of drawings for studying the emotional problems of both children and adults - is now an established psychiatric procedure." It continued,  "One of the best-known pioneers in the field of spontaneous art expression is Dr. Margaret Naumburg, 59-year-old, New York-born artist-psychiatrist, who has devoted the last ten years of her life to her own form of art therapy." [22] Yet as she was neither doctor, artist, nor psychiatrist, she continued to struggle to find her professional place in the world.

Although she was without institutional affiliation, she continued to work and write independently. She published Schizophrenic Art: Its Meaning in Psychotherapy in 1950 and  Psychoneurotic Art: Its Use in Psychotherapy in 1953. Thomas A. C. Rennie, on staff at the Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic in New York, wrote the preface to  Schizophrenic Art and in it acknowledged Naumburg's status:  "The main purpose of the book... is to define a new approach to psychotherapy. This approach in the hands of Miss Naumburg with her special training and insight is clearly a valid one. It is important because it represents an essentially pioneer effort." [23] In fact, while Naumburg does use the phrase  "art therapy," she shies away from defining it directly, describing a process in which the therapist is almost invisible:

When inner experiences of a patient are projected into plastic form, art often becomes a more immediate mode of expression than words... Some patients do not immediately recognize the significance of their spontaneous art; but as therapy proceeds they usually arrive at awareness of its symbolic meaning. This is the reason that it is unnecessary for the therapist to interpret directly to the patient what his spontaneous creations mean.[24]

To which approach one reviewer responded, "The theoretical exposition of the technique is frequently rather speculative and not always convincing." [25]

In her introduction to Psychoneurotic Art three years later, Naumburg faced the issue more squarely:

Art therapy is psychoanalytically oriented, recognizing the fundamental importance of the unconscious... Art therapy enables the patient to translate the interior images of his unconscious into pictorial projections; the creation of such symbolic forms establishes a primary basis of communication with the therapist. Spontaneous graphic art becomes a form of symbolic speech which may serve as a substitute for words or as a stimulus which leads to an increase of verbalization in the course of therapy.[26]

In the following year, however, she received a challenge to go still further.

In March 1954 the annual meeting of the American Orthopsychiatric Association took place in New York City. Naumburg chaired a symposium on art therapy, "The Use of Spontaneous Art in Psychotherapy." The program promised three papers, including one by Naumburg herself, followed by discussion by René Spitz and Ernst Kris. Spitz, unable to attend, sent a written discussion to be read at the symposium. In it he wrote,

Both Miss Naumburg and Dr. Rabinovitch [another symposium speaker] discuss to a certain extent the technique which they have applied. Nevertheless, I am not clear in my mind about the essential aspects of the therapeutical situation on one hand, of the therapeutic procedure on the other. I feel very strongly that at some point we will have to differentiate quite clearly the basically different aspects of analytical therapy and of art therapy... I would like to enter a plea to the art therapists to draw up a parallel between the procedures used by them and contrast this to the classical analytical procedures - such a confrontation would help us greatly in understanding many aspects of art therapy which at this point are not sufficiently clear - at least they are not so to me.[27]

In the margin next to his "plea," Naumburg wrote,  "Answer this." She contemplated this comparison for the next ten years.

In addition to the publication of her books, Naumburg began to teach privately, offering a ten-week seminar at her home. She also began to have opportunities to offer courses at institutions such as the Institute of Pennsylvania Hospital and New York's Postgraduate Center for Psychotherapy. She gave a series of ten lectures in Washington, D.C., in 1956 sponsored by the District of Columbia Occupational Therapy Association. The Washington lectures brought Elinor Ulman, a therapist and later an important figure in art therapy in her own right, into contact with Naumburg. Five years later, Ulman would found the Bulletin of Art Therapy to provide a forum for art therapists from all over the country. For more than ten years, she and Naumburg would correspond, occasionally in fierce disagreement but mostly in mutual appreciation.

While working on many projects, however, Naumburg did not have a consistent source of income. She applied in 1952 for a Guggenheim Fellowship, proposing to write a book titled The Image Speaks: The Dynamics of Art in the Unconscio us of Modern and Ancient Man,  "to make available - not only to scholars, artists, psychiatrists and psychologists but also to the general reader - data on the psychodynamics and meaning of symbolic art." [28] She did not receive a fellowship. Throughout the 1950s she continued to accept speaking opportunities that would not have furthered her professional progress, such as the lecture she gave on  "Some Psychological Implications of Color Preferences" ̶ to the National Society for Decorative Design in 1956.

She also pursued long-term teaching positions, but they proved difficult to get. In 1949 she hoped to offer a course at the New School for Social Research. After reviewing a proposed outline, Clara W. Mayer, Dean of the School of Philosophy and Liberal Arts sent Naumburg her conclusions: "the subject interests me very much and I have tried... to see whether there is enough that the successful practitioners like yourself could really teach. I find it utterly elusive, except insofar as every form of expression sheds light on the total personality. In this sense it is an adjunct to therapy which can hardly be profitably taught by itself." [29] Naumburg responded in self-defense,  "The lecture plan... was not meant to be, in any sense, a training course to make art therapists, as you interpreted it," [30] but the discussion was not renewed.

In 1953 another opportunity opened up. Starting in the fall of 1953, teachers participating in guidance work in New York had to take additional courses in psychology, and as a result, Naumburg was hired by the New School to teach "Dynamic Psychology in the Creative Arts." Mindful of how little leeway she had between teaching about art therapy and teaching art therapists, she warily declared to her students in her first lecture,  "Some of you who teach may be wondering whether... I am advocating that teachers become therapists. No, nothing of that kind. No teacher today, I believe, in any field, can do an adequate job, without understanding how the unconscious motivates the responses of their students and themselves." [31] Hanna Yaxa Kwiatkowska, who later developed the use of group art therapy for family therapy at the National Institute for Mental Health, was a student in this course. Both Naumburg and her students hoped that a workshop class would follow, but the New School declined to offer it.

In the summer of 1958 she taught "Art Education and Personality," the start of a seven-year relationship with the Art Education Department of New York University. Her lecture notes and syllabi show that this introductory course changed little over the fourteen years she taught it. In it she introduced ways drawing was used for diagnostic purposes, Florence Cane's  "scribble" technique of creating spontaneous pictures, and case studies. She gave a survey of art therapy mostly through her own articles and case studies. Later she began to teach a second course at New York University,  "Case Studies of Pupils with Emotional Blocks in Creativity." This was essentially the workshop course that she had not been able to develop at the New School. A description of  "Art Education and Personality" (  "How certain techniques, developed in Art Therapy, can be applied to the teaching of the 'normal' art student will be discussed" [32]) makes it clear that Naumburg still had to approach the subject of teaching art therapy cautiously. Nevertheless, through these courses Naumburg introduced students from a wide range of backgrounds to art therapy and began or aided the training of many professional art therapists. Several had already been inspired by her books, and they traveled long distances to study with her in her summer courses.

Early in 1958, Naumburg had applied for certification as a psychologist. To requests for records of her graduate work in psychology, she replied, listing her professional affiliations and concluding, "I hope that this letter makes clear to you why, after my own analysis from 1914-1917, I was unable to find the graduate courses in clinical or dynamic psychology that I sought at that time. I therefore had to pioneer in developing and applying dynamic psychology in retraining teachers myself in a modern school. I believe that my membership in the recognized psychological associations is evidence of my contribution to educational and clinical psychology." [33] Naumburg received notice of her rejection in September. Although there is no evidence of a second application in the collection, she did re-apply successfully, for she was issued a license in Psychology in March, 1961.[34]

At the beginning of the 1960s, Naumburg felt that art therapy had achieved a professional identity. In her catalog for "The Power of the Image," an exhibit at the American Psychiatric Association annual meeting for 1960, she proclaimed,  "Analytically oriented art therapy has now, in its twentieth year, established itself firmly as a primary and an adjunctive method of treatment for both neurotic and psychotic patients." Another sign of this development was the founding of the  Bulletin of Art Therapy by Elinor Ulman in 1961. Ulman's inaugural editorial recognized Naumburg's importance:  "As we launch the first journal devoted to art therapy, this specialized discipline has already an honorable history and the beginning of worldwide recognition. For the past twenty years, starting in this country with the pioneering efforts of Margaret Naumburg and in England with the work of Adrian Hill, the use of painting and clay modelling in the treatment of illness has been developing." [35] Naumburg, however, was not as quick to recognize the effort of her colleague. In the obituary for Naumburg in the  American Journal of Art Therapy (as the  Bulletin was renamed in 1969), Ulman recalled,  "[Naumburg] viewed the founding of this journal with her customary skepticism and politely refused an invitation to write the lead article for its first issue. We are proud that our initial effort passed muster, leading Ms. Naumburg to contribute an article to our second (Winter 1961) issue." [36]

Art therapy was at this point a broad enough field to include subgroups with different perspectives. As Ulman explained in an article in the second issue, "some artists put the emphasis on art and some on therapy... In the United States the secon d group - emphasis on therapy - found its spokesman earlier in the person of Margaret Naumburg." [37] The author of the lead article in the first issue,  "Art and Emptiness: New Problems in Art Education and Art Therapy," was Edith Kramer, preeminent representative of the first group. Maintaining her identity as an artist as well as an art therapist, Kramer's view of art therapy held that acts of creation were inherently therapeutic rather than a form of nonverbal communication used in therapy. Ulman noted,  "in 1958 she became the second member of our nascent profession in the United States to publish at book length," and then attempted to depict Naumburg and Kramer's views of each other from opposite ends of a spectrum:  "By Naumburg's recent definitions, Kramer is an art teacher rather than an art therapist. Into Kramer's ideological scheme, Naumburg fits as a psychotherapist, not an art therapist." [38] Naumburg's typical approach to art therapists outside of her circle, in other countries or even in the United States, was to ignore them. There is only one letter from Kramer in Naumburg's correspondence, and no signs of awareness on Naumburg's part of Kramer's book or later of her presence at the New School for Social Research, where she taught an art therapy course in the Department of Art Interpretation during the same years when Naumburg taught art therapy in the Department of Psychology (demonstrating the truth of Ulman's distinction between the emphasis on art and the emphasis on therapy).

Naumburg was by this time fighting against the inexorable progress of age. After several re-appointments past the statutory age of retirement at New York University, university officials refused to re-appoint her again after the spring of 1965. Coming at a moment when Naumburg hoped to develop a degree program in art therapy, the termination was a cruel disappointment. She attempted to persuade university officials of the unique nature of her courses and marshaled the support of her brother-in-law, but in vain. She and her courses, however, found a new home at the New School for Social Research, where she continued to teach through 1972.

Naumburg's last book, Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy: Its Principles and Practices, came out in 1966. Presenting case studies of women suffering from an ulcer, alcoholism, and depression,  Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy was Naumburg's answer to Spitz's 1954 challenge. The title reflected her desire to demonstrate that art therapy was distinct from Freudian psychoanalysis. Through 1965, Naumburg described her approach to art therapy as analytically or psychoanalytically oriented, but from 1966 onward she consistently referred to her method as dynamically oriented art therapy, even changing the word  "analytically" in her earlier works when she had reason to revisit them.

Naumburg devoted part of her introduction to a description of Spitz's concerns. She attributed some to such causes as "a misunderstanding" and  "a superficial and mistaken interpretation." [39] A reviewer writing from a Freudian viewpoint responded in kind:  "[the book] is marred by her polemical tone and her rather shallow understanding of freudian [sic] psychoanalysis." [40] Some art therapists acclaimed  Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy as the field's first textbook. A dissenting voice said,  "Miss Naumbuerg [sic] seems biased about the value of other people's art therapy and seems to credit some for doing well because she trained them. I kept wishing that she would tolerate other theories of art therapy, or even consider them as authentic efforts..." [41] and might have been describing Naumburg's embattled approach throughout the 1960s and into the 1970s.

Despite her fighting spirit, her past began to rival her present in importance. She began to receive requests for information on her role in progressive education. She was becoming recognized as part of the history of education in the United States, an d her role in the field of art therapy began to shift in a similar direction. No longer the keynote speaker at conferences, she began to be invited to provide a historical perspective on art therapy. In 1966 the program for a conference on "Art Therapy and General Hospital Psychiatry" lists Naumburg's talk as  "The History and Development of Art Therapy," but her lecture notes reveal how she preferred to consider the topic:  "The Development of Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy."

At the 1968 annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, three group exhibits on aspects of art therapy were on display. Naumburg participated in "Aspects of Art Therapy," organized by Carolyn Refsnes, a former student. This exhibit also included Edith Kramer, Hanna Yaxa Kwiatkowska, and Elinor Ulman. One of the other two exhibits,  "Art Therapy as a Diagnostic Tool," displayed sculpture and painting by patients at Philadelphia's Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital. It was organized by Paul Fink, M.D., and Myra Levick, Hahnemann's director of education and art therapy director. Hahnemann was poised to become a new center of American art therapy. In the 1968-1969 academic year, they offered for the first time a ten-month internship program. Students successfully completing the program were to receive certificates, making Hahnemann the first art therapy certification program.

Art therapists from all three exhibits met for lunch during the annual meeting. They discussed the possibility of establishing a national art therapy organization and agreed to meet again in the fall. Approximately eighty people attended a December mee ting at Hahnemann. The minutes record tensions between the Hahnemann organizers and attenders who perceived the Hahnemann group as supporting the control of art therapy by psychiatrists. The latter group included Naumburg and some of her students. Felice Cohen of the Child Guidance Center of Houston moved to elect Myra Levick as temporary president, but Ulman thought that position was rightfully Naumburg's. The meeting avoided this conflict by electing a steering committee to prepare a constitution and by laws. Seven were nominated for the committee, of whom five were elected. Ulman and Levick, who did later become the organization's first president, were among the five. The two not elected were Naumburg and Kramer.

The next meeting took place in Louisville in June 1969. Naumburg was not present. Those attending adopted the constitution and the by-laws of the steering committee, bringing into existence the American Art Therapy Association. The by-laws defined classes of membership, including Honorary Life Membership, "to be conferred in recognition of distinguished service in the field of art therapy." It was announced that the outgoing Steering Committee recommended to the incoming Executive Committee that Naumburg be invited to become the Association's first Honorary Life Member. The announcement was greeted with applause and approved by all present.[42] Thus at the first annual meeting of the American Art Therapy Association in September 1971, Naumburg received a plaque designating her as the first Honorary Life Member. But tensions persisted between Naumburg and her supporters on the one hand and  "the Philadelphia group" on the other for at least a few more years, as evidenced by correspondence in the  American Journal of Art Therapy and an article by Fink, Levick, and Goldman with responses from Kwiatkowska and Naumburg in the  International Journal of Psychiatry in 1973.

By this time, Naumburg, who had for decades been cast as the pioneer who created the future, was ready to start thinking about the past. In 1972, Teachers College Press republished Naumburg's first art therapy book, with a new introduction by Naumburg, under the title An Introduction to Art Therapy: Studies of the "Free" Art Expression of Behavior Problem Children and Adolescents as a Means of Diagnosis and Therapy. This book received the Ernst Kris Prize from the American Society of Psychopathology of Expression in 1973. Teachers College Library also expressed interest in housing Naumburg's papers, but only was interested in the papers from Naumburg's years of work in progressive education, leading her to look elsewhere for a home for the entire collection.

Naumburg taught her last courses at the New School in the fall of 1972. In December she was hoping to find somewhere else to teach in New York, but early in 1973, when she met with a lawyer to draw up a new will, she was taking stock of her situation and could consider leaving the city where she had lived all her life: "I am quite alone in New York. My son and his family live in Cambridge. And I might at some future time move to Cambridge in order to work on another book." [43] In September she moved. During the intervening summer she visited Harvard, interested in the possibility of obtaining a fellowship at the Radcliffe Institute. She wanted to organize all the materials she had kept from her long career - lectures, course materials, exhibits, client artwork and records, and publications. When this work was done, she envisioned making a gift of her papers to Harvard's Schlesinger Library. She did not receive a fellowship and may not have even completed the application process.

Because of the re-publication of Studies of the "Free" Art Expression of Behavior Problem Children and Adolescents as a Means of Diagnosis and Therapy with its new introduction and perhaps also because of her th oughts of organizing her work, Naumburg wrote many rough drafts at this time about her place in the history of education and the history of art therapy. Repeatedly, in increasingly illegible handwriting, she wrote versions of how she founded the Walden School, how she first entered the world of art therapy, and how she influenced its development. She seemed still to be fighting old battles, most of all the battle to be accepted by other professionals on her own terms.

At the end of 1969, Naumburg had what she called "a sudden and unexpected illumination" as the result of a conversation with psychologist Lawrence LeShan. Naumburg recorded both sides of the conversation in writing, almost as if she were composing a formulation for Orage:

As I spoke of the conflicts and resistances I met to any questioning of the traditionally accepted methods first of education and then later of psychotherapy the psychologist commented,

 "You don't seem to realize that you have all your life tried first in  the field of Education and more  recently in the area of psychotherapy  to battle the  establishment believing you  could change it. Actually what you have stood for and worked to change in the “Establishment” of Education and Psychotherapy  belongs not in these institutions of the past, but in the  promise of this new young  generation of today, which is really preparing to establish new spiritual values in living."

The psychologist's comment startled me. In a flash I recognized the truth of his comments about my misplaced hopes of being able to modify the rigidity of the traditional values of education or the assumptions of classical forms of psychotherapy.

The collection comes to an end soon after her move to Brookline, Massachusetts, although she lived for nearly another decade. She died on February 26, 1983.


[1] "Emergence of the Individual in Modern Education," Folder 2268.

[2] Orage formulations, late 1926?, Folder 4358.

[3] "MNs Early History," Folder 2050.

[4] Letter to Sol Cohen, January 25, 1967, Folder 147.

[5] "MNs early history," Folder 2050.

[6] Letter to Max and Therese Naumburg, December 1912, Folder 445.

[7] Letter to Max and Therese Naumburg, December 1912, Folder 445.

[8] Letter to Sol Cohen, January 25, 1967, Folder 147.

[9] Waldo Frank, Memoirs of Waldo Frank, ed. Alan Trachtenberg (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1973), 199.

[10] Margaret Naumburg, "A Direct Method of Education,"  Bureau of Education Experiments Bulletin 4 (  "Experimental Schools," 1917), 7.

[11] Frank, Memoirs, 206.

[12] Cynthia Earl Kerman and Richard Eldridge, The Lives of Jean Toomer: A Hunger for Wholeness (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1987), 131-133.

[13] Louise Welch, Orage with Gurdjieff in America (Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul), 57-60.

[14] Eileen J. Garrett, My Life as a Search for the Meaning of Mediumship (New York: Oquaga Press, 1939).

[15] Glenn Gritzer, and Arnold Arluke. The Making of Rehabilitation: A Political Economy of Medical Specialization, 1890-1980 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), 105.

[16] "Can Modern Educational Principles...," p.2, Folder 2463.

[17] Letter from Elizabeth R. Boyan to Naumburg, March 18, 1941, Folder 455.

[18] "Phases of Hospital Research and Experience," Folder 2051.

[19] Psychiatric Quarterly 20 (January 1946), 74-112.

[20] N. D. C. Lewis in Margaret Naumburg. Studies of the "Free" Art Expression... (New York: Nervous and Mental Disease Monographs, 1947), vi.

[21] Agnes E. Benedict, review of Studies of the "Free" Art Expression... In  Parents' Magazine (December 1947).

[22] "Paintings and Passions,"  Newsweek, 13 June 1949, 47.

[23] Schizophrenic Art, Preface Draft, Folder 914.

[24] Schizophrenic Art , Foreword Draft, Folder 914.

[25] E. A. Bennet, review of Schizophrenic Art In  British Journal of Medical Psychology, n.d.

[26] Psychoneurotic Art, Galleys, p. 3, Folder 981.

[27] Spitz, René A., Discussion, Folder 2675.

[28] Guggenheim Fellowship application, Folder 5250.

[29] Letter from Clara W. Mayer to Naumburg, March 17, 1949, Folder 450.

[30] Letter to Mayer, March 24, 1949, Folder 450

[31] Introductory lecture, p. 2-3, Folder 3779.

[32] Course announcement draft, Folder 3918.

[33] Letter to Joseph R. Sanders, February 4, 1958, Folder 674.

[34] E-mail communication, University of the State of New York, Office of Higher Education and the Professions, Record & Archives Unit.

[35] Bulletin of Art Therapy 1.1 (Fall 1961), 3.

[36] American Journal of Art Therapy 22.1 (October 1982), 10.

[37] Elinor Ulman, "Art therapy: problems of definition."  Bulletin of Art Therapy 1.2 (Winter 1961), 11.

[38] Ulman, "Art therapy: problems of definition," 12, 17.

[39] Margaret Naumburg, Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy: Its Principles and Practices(New York: Grune & Stratton, 1966), 17.

[40] Esman, Aaron H. Review of DOAT. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 1967.

[41] Ramsay, J. Bert. Review of DOAT. American Journal of Psychiatry 123.11 (May 1967).

[42] "News,"  American Journal of Art Therapy 9.1 (October 1969), 37.

[43] Notes for Wishod & Fisch, 1973, Folder 726.

Scope and Contents

The Margaret Naumburg Papers at the University of Pennsylvania contains materials documenting all the phases of her long and productive work life. The collection includes 182 boxes of documents, artwork, and images, along with 10 drawers of oversize ma terials. The documents include correspondence; copies of and materials for Naumburg's writings, lectures, and exhibit catalogs; materials for case studies; lecture notes for the courses she taught and papers her students wrote in those courses; and work by others that she collected and saved. Other media in the collection include slides, photographs, and audio recordings.

The Correspondence series consists of approximately 750 folders representing about 560 correspondents. Family members in the collection include Naumburg's parents, Max and Therese Naumburg, to whom she wrote while she was studying in Europe; her sister Florence Cane, an art teacher, and her brother-in-law Melville Cane, a lawyer and poet; her brother-in-law Joseph Proskauer, who was a judge on the New York State Supreme Court and who supported Naumburg's career financially; and her brother Robert Naumburg. There is very little correspondence with her ex-husband Waldo Frank in the collection; extensive correspondence between Naumburg and Frank may be found in the Waldo Frank Papers, also housed at the University of Pennsylvania. Correspondence with her son Thomas Frank is also minimal.

In connection with Naumburg's early career in progressive education, the collection preserves correspondence with John Dewey and Alvin S. Johnson, but there is relatively little correspondence from before 1930. Correspondents from the period between the late 1920s and 1940, when Naumburg was involved in occult and psychic inquiries include Gurdjieff associates Alfred R. Orage and Jeanne de Salzmann; trance medium Eileen Garrett; and psychic investigator J. B. Rhine. The majority of the series is devote d to correspondence related to her art therapy career. Correspondents in this area include art therapists Elinor Ulman and Hanna Kwiatkowska, psychiatrist Nolan D. C. Lewis, psychologist Gardner Murphy, and many other psychiatrists, psychologists, and stu dents of art therapy from the United States, Europe, and South America. There are relatively few letters from other art therapists. Edith Kramer, Diana Raphael Halliday, and Marguerite Sechehaye are each represented by a single letter to Naumburg with no response in the collection.

Small collections of correspondence are other series. Correspondence concerning Naumburg's experimental Montessori class in a public school has been filed in the Elementary Education series. Correspondence with clients or members of their families are filed in the Client Record series by client. Correspondence among the members of Eileen Garrett's circle and among the members of an ESP group have been filed in the Consciousness Investigations series.

Margaret Naumburg had two careers which were quite separate chronologically, although both drew on similar interests which engaged her throughout her lifetime. Both her writings and lectures are divided into subseries representing those two careers. Fr om 1913 through about 1924, Naumburg played a prominent role in progressive education through the founding and directing of the Children's School, later renamed the Walden School. A small but important series grouping materials from this period in Naumburg's life includes promotional materials for her early Montessori classes, records of her struggles with the Board of Education over an experimental Montessori class in a public school, and catalogs for and articles about The Walden School. She continued to save material about the Wa lden School even after severing her official ties to the school. The latest materials are connected with the school's 50th anniversary in 1964 and a memorial service for a teacher in 1971. A limited amount of correspondence with her sister Florence Cane provides a less public perspective on the early period.

In the Writings series, the first subseries collects Naumburg's writings concerning education. In 1928 she published a book, The Child and the World, based on her experience with the Children's School, represented in the collection by a book cover and reviews, which she saved. She also wrote articles on the Walden School, other progressive schools, progressive education, and American education in general. In addition, she reviewed books on education by other authors. Her writings on education demonstrate her early assimilation of Freudian psychology into her educational philosophy and therefore are part of the early history of Freudian analysis in the United States. The first subseries of the Lectures series consists of lec tures on educational topics. The total number of lectures is relatively small, but there are seven boxes of material from Naumburg's preparation for her 1932 series of twelve lectures,  "Crisis in American Education."

Between the time when she distanced herself from the Walden School and the start of her second career as an art therapist, Naumburg was involved in intense self-searching, the records of which are gathered into the Consciousness Investigations series. Along with Waldo Frank, Jean Toomer, Carl Zigrosser, and many others of their acquaintance, in the late 1920s she immersed herself in the teachings and disciplines of G. I. Gurdjieff. As a result of this group's emphasis on "formulation," or self-observation, Naumburg's writings from this period are among the most revealing in the collection in terms of expressing her emotions, fears, aspirations, memories of childhood, and opinions of herself. They are also the only documents that reflect her intimate relationship with Toomer.

By 1933 Naumburg had broken with the Gurdjieffian community and associated herself with a trance medium well-known at the time, Eileen Garrett. Naumburg, turning briefly against Freudian psychology, was interested in learning about the "superconscious" ” through the personalities who spoke through Garrett while she was in a trance state. Because of what Naumburg perceived as the scientific nature of her efforts, detailed record-keeping was essential. Thus the collection includes nearly ten boxes of transcripts of  "sittings" with Garrett and also extensive notes for writing projects which Naumburg undertook with the guidance of Garrett's personalities. This is an extremely strong collection of materials on spiritualism and psychic research in the 1930s.

By 1940, however, Naumburg had once again broken from a past phase of life to begin a new one. Art therapy was to be the primary focus of the rest of her life, and as such, occupies about two-thirds of the collection. In the Psychotherapy subseries of the Writings series are Naumburg's notes and drafts for her three books about art therapy, one of which was republished late in her life. She also wrote and saved versions of numerous articles. The Psychotherapy subseries of the Lectures series collects her lectures on art therapy, which she gave to almost any group that would listen. The Exhibit s series includes materials from the exhibits which she assembled to show at professional conferences.

All of these endeavors were built on the foundation of her therapy work with individuals, first institutionalized children and adolescents, and later adult clients who sought her out or were referred to her by a few receptive psychologists or psychiatr ists. In the Client Records series are records of 23 juvenile patients and 24 adult clients. Many of the records are fragmentary, but those for the cases which she used in books or exhibits are extensive. The records include client artwork and photographs of client artwork, which are duplicated in the Slides and Photographs series; client writing about their artwork, dreams, and life issues; and Naumburg's detailed accounts of therapy sessions. All materials containing patient/client records are restricted from use until 2044.

Later in life Naumburg went on to teach art therapy courses at New York University and the New School for Social Research. From these courses she saved syllabi, lecture notes, and student questionnaires, which make up the Art Therapy Courses Series. The Student Work series, eight boxes of examples of book reviews and case studies by her students, adds more information about her work as a teacher of art therapy principles on the undergraduate and graduate levels.

The Proposals series combines more than one phase of Naumburg's life. She devoted some years during her time with Eileen Garrett to attempting to coordinate an exhibition of art of the Western hemisphere. She also proposed art therapy projects for financial support from foundations. She was involved, not willingly, in the development of the American Art Therapy Association. Finally, toward the end of her life, she hoped to find financial support for the organization of the materials she had saved from her long career.

One final large series is devoted to the materials by others which Naumburg collected and saved. The topics of these are wide-ranging, including art therapy, the medical or psychiatric problems of particular clients, art, and occupational therapy. The formats are similarly wide-ranging, including single articles (several signed by their authors), complete issues of periodicals, pamphlets, conference programs, directories, exhibit catalogs, bibliographies, and many pages of passages, which Naumburg copied by hand, from monograph sources.

Margaret Naumburg was not a collaborator or a networker with colleagues, although she was extremely supportive to many students. Except for art therapists who had been her students and a very few others with whom she formed a relationship, other art th erapists do not figure prominently in this collection. It records Naumburg's career in minute detail; it does not reveal her place in the field of art therapy, new and growing in her lifetime. Only with the discussions surrounding the formation of the American Art Therapy Association does it become clear that Naumburg and her contacts were one subgroup or school of art therapy. The collecti on, however, is an excellent record of the development of Naumburg's principles and, by extension, the principles of those who followed her.

The Margaret Naumburg Papers may be examined by researchers in the reading room of the Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania. Patient/client material is restricted from use until 2044. Permission to quote from and to publish unpublished materials must be requested in writing from the Curator of Manuscripts and Margaret Naumburg's literary executor.

Arrangement note

Contains 17 series, including correspondence (12 boxes); elementary education materials (1 box); writings (32 boxes); lectures (18 boxes); exhibits (6 boxes); client records (22 boxes); art therapy courses (7 boxes); student work (8 boxes); consciousness investigations (19 boxes); proposals (2 boxes); biographical/professional information (1 box); works by others (17 boxes); miscellaneous (1 box); slides (8 boxes); photographs (8 boxes); photograph albums (3 boxes); and oversize (17 boxes + 10 map drawers, 4 framed paintings, 2 oversize paintings, and 1 stone sculpture).

Administrative Information

Publication Information

University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts,  2000

Finding Aid Author

Finding aid prepared by Amey A. Hutchins

Access Restrictions

The bulk of this collection is open for research use, however, folders containing patient/client records are restricted from use until 2044. These folders are located in: Series VI. Client records (boxes 70-91); Series XV. Photographs (boxes 155-159); and Series XVII. Oversize, Subseries E and G.

Use Restrictions

Copyright restrictions may exist. For most library holdings, the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania do not hold copyright. It is the responsibility of the requester to seek permission from the holder of the copyright to reproduce material from the Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts.

Source of Acquisition

Gift of Thomas Frank, 1993.

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Controlled Access Headings

  • Correspondence
  • Photograph albums
  • Photographs
  • Writings (documents)
Geographic Name(s)
  • New York (N.Y.)--Intellectual life--20th century
  • Art
  • Art therapy--United States--20th century
  • Medicine
  • Progressive education -- United States -- 20th century
  • Psychology
  • Spiritualism -- 20th century
  • Women
  • Women in medicine
  • Women physicians
  • Women psychologists

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Other Finding Aids

For a complete listing of correspondents, do the following title search in Franklin: Margaret Naumburg Papers.

Collection Inventory

I.  Correspondence.

Series Description

Arranged alphabetically by correspondent, then chronologically for each correspondent. Items of incoming and outgoing correspondence are interfiled. Includes correspondence with family members, educators, art therapists, art therapy students, occupatio nal therapists, psychologists, psychiatrists. Also includes correspondence with institutions where she worked and where she visited as a guest lecturer or instructor. Unidentified correspondence is at the end of the series.

Box Folder

Abrams - Atlantic.

1 1 - 57

Augeros - Chekhov.

2 58 - 138

Ciba - Despert.

3 139 - 196

Devereux - Hopkins.

4 197 - 282

Horowitz - Kwiatkowska.

5 283 - 349

L'Aventure - Moore.

6 350 - 420

Moreno - New York University.

7 421 - 473

New York University - Queen's.

8 474 - 529

Rabinovich - Site.

9 530 - 601

Slatoff - United.

10 602 - 662

University - Warren, Helen.

11 663 - 700

Warren, Helen - Zigrosser; Unidentified.

12 701 - 746

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II.  Elementary education materials, 1913-1974.

Series Description

Montessori and Walden materials arranged chronologically. Materials include promotional brochures, correspondence, articles not by Naumburg, catalogs, transcripts from a Children's School history class, and items associated with commemorative events at the Walden School.

Box Folder

Montessori materials, 1913-1916.

13 747 - 757

Children's/Walden School materials, 1917-1971.

13 758 - 789

Miscellaneous elementary education materials.

13 790 - 791

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III.  Writings.

A.  Education.

1.  Book and Book Ideas.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by title. Book cover and reviews for The Child and the World, published 1928. Preliminary notes or outlines for several other unpublished books concerning education.

Box Folder

Promotional materials and reviews of The Child and the World.

14 792 - 796

Notes for Democratic Education on Trial (unpublished).

14 797 - 806

Notes on education and psychoanalysis.

14 807 - 808

Notes for The Human Side of Teaching(unpublished).

14 809 - 826

Notes on modern education and psychotherapy.

14 827 - 830

Notes for Open Sesame (unpublished).

14 831

Notes for The University at Seven (unpublished).

14 832 - 834

2.  Articles.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by title. Articles on the Children's School/Walden School, along with articles on other schools and more general educational issues, dating from 1916 through 1944.

Box Folder

"The Crux of Progressive Education" .

15 835 - 836

"A Direct Method of Education" .

15 837 - 841

"Do American Schools Prepare for Democracy?" (unpublished).

15 842 - 843

"The Eurythmics of Jacques Dalcroze" (unpublished?).

15 844

"Four Jobs to One" (unpublished?).

15 845

Gary School series, Evening Mail.

15 846 - 852

Nervous Child introduction.

15 853 - 855

"Progressive Education" .

15 856

"Saving the 'Average' Student from Traditional Education" (unpublished?).

15 857 - 864

Survey dialogue series.

15 865

"What Is Experimental Education?" .

15 866

"Where Do You Stand?" - A Response (unpublished).

15 867

3.  Reviews.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by name of reviewed author. Reviews by Naumburg of eight books on education and child development by other authors, mostly from the New York Times.

Box Folder

Abrahamsen, David.

15 868

Benedict, Agnes E.

15 868

Cohen, Frank J.

15 869

Glueck, Sheldon.

15 869

Hayes, Cathy.

15 870

Mead, Margaret.

15 871

Read, Herbert Edward.

15 872

Sirjamaki, John.

15 873

B.  Psychotherapy.

1.  Books and Book Ideas.


Arranged chronologically.

A.  Studies of the 'Free' Art Expression of Behavior Problem Children and Adolescents as a Means of Diagnosis and Therapy, 1947.

Description & Arrangement

Includes copies of the first pages of the book and reviews, arranged alphabetically by reviewing author. Also includes materials for the 1973 re-publication of this work under the title An Introduction to Art Therapy, primarily drafts for Naumburg's new introduction.

Box Folder

Studies of the "Free" Art Expression of Behavior Problem Children and Adolescents as a Means of Diagnosis and Therapy (1947 1st ed. and 1973 rev. ed.).

16 874 - 912

B.  Schizophrenic Art: Its Meaning in Psychotherapy.

Description & Arrangement

Drafts, photographs for illustrations, research notes from sources by other authors arranged alphabetically by author name, reviews arranged alphabetically by reviewer name.

Box Folder

Schizophrenic Art: Its Meaning in Psychotherapy.

18 954 - 979

Schizophrenic Art: Its Meaning in Psychotherapy.

17 913 - 953

C.  Psychoneurotic Art: Its Function in Psychotherapy , 1953.

Description & Arrangement

Galleys, drafts, and reviews arranged alphabetically by reviewer name.

Box Folder

Psychoneurotic Art: Its Function in Psychotherapy.

18 980 - 987

Psychoneurotic Art: Its Function in Psychotherapy.

19 988 - 1027

Psychoneurotic Art: Its Function in Psychotherapy.

20 1028 - 1050

D.  Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy: Its Principles and Practices, 1966.

Description & Arrangement

Drafts, photographs and captions for illustrations, reviews arranged alphabetically by reviewer name, promotional materials.

Box Folder

Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy: Its Principles and Practices.

20 1051 - 1065

Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy...

21 1066 - 1098

Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy...

22 1099 - 1129

Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy...

23 1130 - 1155

E.  Book ideas.

Description & Arrangement

Preliminary notes and outlines for unpublished books concerning art therapy, arranged alphabetically by title when possible.

Box Folder

Notes for Fantasy and Reality (unpublished).

23 1156 - 1160

Notes for The History and Development of Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy (unpublished).

23 1161

Notes on the history and development of art therapy.

23 1162

Notes on interviewing.

23 1163

Notes for People and Psychotherapy (unpublished).

23 1164 - 1165

Notes on universal symbolism.

23 1166

Notes for The Use of Art in Relation to Education, Re-education, and Therapy (unpublished).

23 1167

Miscellaneous book ideas and file folders.

23 1168 - 1171

2.  Articles.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by title. Published and draft versions of articles concerning art therapy.

Box Folder

"Art and Personality" .

24 1172 - 1173

"Art as Symbolic Speech" .

24 1174 - 1214

"Art Education for the Emotionally Disturbed" .

25 1215 - 1230

Art Therapy in Relation to the War (unpublished).

25 1231 - 1232

"Art Therapy in Theory and Practice" .

25 1233

"Art Therapy: Its Scope and Function" .

25 1234 - 1241

"Art Therapy with a Schizophrenic Patient" .

25 1242 - 1256

"Art Therapy with a Schizophrenic Patient" .

26 1257 - 1267

"Art Therapy with a Seventeen Year Old Schizophrenic Girl" .

26 1268 - 1283

"Children's Art Expression and War" .

26 1284 - 1290

"Discussion" .

27 1291

"A Discussion of the Paper " .

27 1292 - 1293

"The Drawings of an Adolescent Girl Suffering from Conversion Hysteria with Amnesia" .

27 1294 - 1297

"Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy" .

27 1298 - 1305

"Expanding Non-Verbal Aspects of Art Education on the University Level" .

27 1306 - 1316

"Fantasy and Reality in the Art Expression of Behavior Problem Children" .

27 1317 - 1322

"The Nature and Purpose of Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy" .

28 1323 - 1331

"The Need of a More Creative Orientation in Universities and Colleges" .

28 1332 - 1340

"Perspectives in Art Therapy" (unpublished).

28 1341 - 1347

"Portata e Funzione della Terapia Artistica" .

28 1348

Problem of Passion for Perfection (unpublished).

28 1349 - 1350

"Psychodynamics of the Art Expression of a Boy with Tic Syndrome" .

28 1351 - 1356

"Religious Symbols in the Unconscious of Man" .

28 1357 - 1362

"Spontaneous Art, Creativity and Psychotherapy" .

29 1363

"Spontaneous Art in Education and Psychotherapy" .

29 1364 - 1369

"Spontaneous Art in Psychotherapy" .

29 1370 - 1384

"Spontaneous Art in Therapy and Diagnosis" .

29 1385 - 1394

"A Study of the Art Expression of a Behavior Problem Boy as an Aid in Diagnosis and Therapy" .

29 1395 - 1397

"A Study of the Art Work of a Behavior-Problem Boy as It Relates to Ego Development and Sexual Enlightenment" .

29 1398 - 1401

"A Study of the Psychodynamics of the Art Work of a Nine-Year-Old Behavior Problem Boy" .

30 1402 - 1405

"Symbolic Images Created by Patients in Art Ther." .

30 1406 - 1409

"The Use of Spontaneous Art in Analytically Oriented Group Therapy of Obese Women" .

30 1410 - 1428

"Visual Unity in Man's Expression from Primeval Man to the Art of Mental Patients Today" (submitted but not published).

30 1429


30 1430

Miscellaneous unidentified pages.

30 1431

3.  Reviews.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by name of reviewed author. Naumburg's reviews of books by other authors on psychotherapy.

Box Folder

Bender, Lauretta.

31 1432

Bruch, Hilde.

31 1433 - 1434

Cocteau, Jean.

31 1435 - 1437

Dax, E. Cunningham.

31 1438

Dracoulidès, N. N.

31 1439 - 1440

Eissler, Ruth.

31 1441

Farnham, Marynia.

31 1442

Freeman, Lucy.

31 1443

Gruner, S.

31 1444 - 1470

Gruner, S.

32 1471 - 1484

Hatterer, Lawrence.

32 1485

Kellogg, Rhoda.

32 1486

Kraus, G.

32 1487 - 1488

Kris, Ernst.

32 1489 - 1491

Meares, Ainslie.

32 1492 - 1493

Moustakas, Clark.

32 1494

Pickford, R. W.

32 1495

Plokker, Johannes.

32 1496 - 1497

Rank, Otto.

32 1498 - 1499

Reitman, Francis.

32 1500 - 1501

Vinchon, Jean.

32 1502

Psychotherapy review file folders.

32 1503

C.  Other.


Poems, plays, notes, and miscellaneous writings by Naumburg.

1.  1912-1920.

Box Folder

Cinematography research.

33 1504 - 1508

Gordon Craig interview.

33 1509 - 1510


33 1511

2.  1920-1930.

Box Folder

Poems, 1920-1924.

33 1512 - 1514

"Algiers" , 1928.

33 1515

"Success" , 1928.

33 1516

"Education as a Year-Round Job" , circa 1929.

33 1517

Untitled story, late 1920s?.

33 1518

Poems, 1930.

33 1519

Poems, undated.

33 1520 - 1527

3.  1930-1940.

Box Folder

In Snow and Sun (unpublished poetry book), circa 1931.

33 1528 - 1548

In Snow and Sun.

34 1549 - 1558

Poems, 1937.

34 1559

Poetry, miscellaneous, undated.

34 1560 - 1562

A Stranger on This Earth (unpublished play), circa 1931.

34 1563 - 1590

Sunflower and Cypress (unpublished play), 1937.

35 1591 - 1637

Sunflower and Cypress.

36 1638 - 1687

Sunflower and Cypress.

37 1688 - 1731

Sunflower and Cypress.

38 1732 - 1783

Sunflower and Cypress.

39 1784 - 1832

Sunflower and Cypress.

40 1833 - 1881

Sunflower and Cypress.

41 1882 - 1920

Sunflower and Cypress.

42 1921 - 1961

Sunflower and Cypress.

43 1962 - 1979

"Vincent against the World" (unpublished scene), 1937.

43 1980

The Living Answer (unpublished play), 1937.

43 1981 - 1991

"This Passion for Questionnaires" (unpublished?), circa 1937.

43 1992

Cleavage (published one-act play), 1938.

43 1993 - 1998

Playground (dance synopsis), 1938.

44 1999 - 2012

Martin Flavin(unpublished play), 1940.

44 2013 - 2018

"The Lonely Way" (unpublished), undated.

44 2019

Mac(unpublished play), undated.

44 2020

The Mothers-in-Law (unpublished play), undated.

44 2021

Premonition (unpublished play), undated.

44 2022 - 2024

Tête a Tête, or Pedestal (unpublished play), undated.

44 2025 - 2029


44 2030 - 2032

4.  1940-1950.

Box Folder

War reflections, undated.

44 2033

Poetry, undated.

44 2034

5.  1970-1974.

Box Folder

Draft passages on the history and development of art therapy, arranged alphabetically by title.

45 2035 - 2052

Untitled drafts.

45 2053 - 2058

Revisions arranged alphabetically by title.

45 2059 - 2061

Organization notes.

45 2062 - 2063

File folders.

45 2064

Return to Top »

IV.  Lectures.

A.  Education.

1.  Crisis in American Education lecture series.

Description & Arrangement

Texts and research for a 12-lecture series given at the New School for Social Research in 1932 considering the educational philosophies of Fascism, Communism, and Democratic-Capitalism.

Box Folder

Crisis in American Education lecture series.

46 2065 - 2073

Crisis Lecture 1, “Three Ways of Life in the Modern World”.

46 2074 - 2089

Crisis Lecture 2, “The Meaning and Significance of Communism as a Form of Society”.

46 2090 - 2116

Crisis Lecture 2.

47 2117 - 2121

Crisis Lecture 3, “How Communism Proposes to Transform Russian Education”.

47 2122 - 2152

Crisis Lecture 4, “The Meaning and Significance of Fascism as a Form of Society”.

47 2153 - 2166

Crisis Lecture 5, “How Fascism Proposes to Transform Italian Education”.

48 2167 - 2175

Notes for Crisis Lectures 4 and 5.

48 2176 - 2196

Crisis Lecture 6, “The Purpose and Trend of Education under Communism, Fascism, and Democratic Capitalism”.

48 2197 - 2211

Crisis Lecture 6.

49 2212 - 2219

Crisis Lecture 7, “What to Teach and What Not to Teach under a Communist, Fascist, or Democratic-Capitalist Society”.

49 2220 - 2229

Notes for Crisis Lectures 6 and 7.

49 2230 - 2233

Notes for Crisis Lecture 7.

49 2234 - 2240

Crisis Lecture 8, “America Pays High for Democracy”.

49 2241 - 2267

Crisis Lecture 9, “Emergence of the Individual in Modern Education”.

50 2268 - 2292

Crisis Lecture 10, “The Public School System as a Symbol of Democracy”.

50 2293 - 2319

Notes for Crisis Lectures 8 - 10.

51 2320 - 2329

Crisis Lecture 12, “The Breakdown of Higher Education”.

51 2338 - 2348

Crisis series notes.

51 2349 - 2361

Crisis series file folders.

52 2362 - 2371

Crisis Lecture 11, “The Progressive Education Movement and the American Public School”.

51 2330 - 2337

2.  Other lectures on education issues.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by title. Lectures dating from 1933 through 1962.

Box Folder

"The Implications of Technocracy for the Future of Education" .

52 2372 - 2374

"Man's Creative Capacities" .

52 2375 - 2380

"The Practicing Professional in Our Art Teaching Program" .

52 2381

"Suggestions on How to Develop a Comprehensive Approach to Art Education in the Proposed Friends' World College" .

52 2382

Miscellaneous lecture notes.

52 2383 - 2386

3.  Notes on education issues.

Box Folder

Miscellaneous education notes.

52 2387 - 2395

B.  Psychotherapy.

1.  Lectures.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by title. Topics include case studies, art therapy programs, and comparative study of images in primitive art.

Box Folder

“Analytically Oriented Art Therapy: Its Place and Purpose”.

53 2396 - 2401

“Art as a Means of Diagnosis and Therapy”.

53 2402 - 2403

“Art as Symbolic Speech”.

53 2404 - 2412

“Art Education for the Emotionally Disturbed”.

53 2413 - 2414

“Art Expression and the Unconscious”.

53 2415

“Art for the Emotionally Disturbed Child”.

53 2416 - 2421

“Art in Therapy”.

53 2422 - 2432

“Art Therapy and Art Education”.

53 2433

“Art Therapy as an Effective Technique in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Patients”.

53 2434

“Art Therapy for the Emotionally Disturbed and Mentally Retarded”.

53 2435 - 2437

“Art Therapy: Its Scope and Function”.

54 2438

“Art Therapy with a Seventeen Year Old Schizophrenic Girl”.

54 2439 - 2453

“Art Therapy with an Obsessive Compulsive Boy”.

54 2454 - 2458

“Art Therapy with the Emotionally Disturbed”.

54 2459 - 2462

“Can Modern Educational Principles Be of Use to Psychotherapists?”.

54 2463 - 2467

“Color and Form: Their Relation to Personality”.

54 2468 - 2470

“A Consideration of the Nature and Significance of Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy”.

54 2471

“The Contribution of Art Therapy to the Practice of Clinical Psychology”.

54 2472 - 2477

“Creative Art and Psychotherapy”.

54 2478

“The Creative Unconscious and the Artist”.

54 2479 - 2485

“Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy in the Treatment of a 26 Year Old Schizophrenic Woman”.

55 2486 - 2490

“Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy in the Treatment of a Depressed Woman”.

55 2491

“The Emotionally Disturbed Child”.

55 2492 - 2493

“An Exploration of Man's Symbolic Use of Art through the Ages”.

55 2494 - 2496

“Fantasy and Reality in the Life of Children”.

55 2497 - 2503

“Genuine Art Expression with Behavior Problem Children Involves the Same Principles of Release as with Well Adjusted Children”.

55 2504 - 2507

“The History and Development of Art Therapy”.

55 2508 - 2513

“History of Interest and Use of Art Productions of Mental Patients in Relation to Psychiatry”.

55 2514

“How a New Approach to Spontaneous Art Expression Can Help Children”.

55 2515 - 2517

“How Could Course Requirements for the Ph.D. or Ed.D. Be Better Adjusted to Art Education?”.

55 2518 - 2521

“How Understanding of Dynamic Psychology by Art Educators Can Improve Mental Health and Expand Creativity in Their Pupils and Themselves”.

55 2522

“Images and Hallucinations of an Alcoholic Patient during Art Therapy”.

56 2523 - 2533

“The Importance of Symbolic Expression in the Spontaneous Art of Behavior Problem Children”.

56 2534 - 2551

“The Importance of Training Art Therapists in the Adequate Use of the Psychiatric Interview”.

56 2552 - 2556

“Methods and Purpose of Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy”.

57 2557 - 2560

“The Nature and Purpose of Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy”.

57 2561 - 2563

“The Need for a Deeper Psychological Awareness for Art Teachers”.

57 2564 - 2571

“The Need of Expanding the Psychological Awareness in Art Educators”.

57 2572

“New Directions in Art Education”.

57 2573 - 2583

“Personality through Art”.

58 2584

“Perspectives on the Development of Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy”.

58 2585 - 2590

“Potential Role of Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy in the Psychiatric Division of a Day Hospital”.

58 2591 - 2600

“The Power of the Image: Symbolic Projections in Art Education and Psychotherapy”.

58 2601 - 2604

“The Power of the Image: Two Case Studies Illustrating Art as a Symbolic Language”.

58 2605

“The Practice of Spontaneous Art in Education and Psychotherapy”.

58 2606

“The Projection of Parental Images as Symbolic Speech”.

58 2607 - 2612

“Psychoanalytically Oriented Art Therapy with a Schizophrenic Patient”.

58 2613 - 2614

“The Psychotherapeutic Significance of Schizophrenic Art Productions”.

58 2615 - 2619

“The Psychotherapeutic Significance of the Spontaneous Art Productions of a Psychoneurotic Patient”.

58 2620 - 2628

“Relation of Art Therapy to Art Education and the `Normal' Student”.

59 2629

“Releasing Creative Art from the Unconscious”.

59 2630 - 2632

“Religious Symbols in the Unconscious of Man”.

59 2633 - 2638

“A Report to the Staff of the Department of Art Education on Two Courses That I Am Giving”.

59 2639 - 2640

“Retardation and Spontaneous Art”.

59 2641 - 2642

“The Role of Art Therapy in a Children's Day Treatment Center and School”.

59 2643

“The Role of Art Therapy in the Treatment of an Ulcer Patient”.

59 2644 - 2646

“The Role of Spontaneous Art in Education and Psychotherapy”.

59 2647 - 2651

“Some Psychological Implications of Color Preferences”.

59 2652

“Spontaneous Art in Education”.

59 2653 - 2658

“Spontaneous Art in Education and Psychotherapy”.

59 2659 - 2662

“Stereotype and Symbol in the Art Productions of an Obsessive Compulsive Boy”.

59 2663 - 2668

“Stereotype and Symbol in the Art Productions of an Obsessive Compulsive Boy”.

60 2669 - 2676

“Supplementary Training for Occupational Therapists: in Dynamic Psychology and Spontaneous Art; and in Case Study Recording”.

60 2677 - 2680

“The Theory and Practice of Dynamically Oriented Art Therapy”.

60 2681

“Understanding Art Experiences through Nonverbal Communication”.

60 2682

“The Use and Methods of Art Therapy”.

60 2683

“The Use of Art in Psychiatry”.

60 2684 - 2685

“The Use of Spontaneous Art in a Psychiatric Hospital”.

60 2686

“The Use of Spontaneous Art in Analytically Oriented Group Therapy of Obese Women”.

60 2687 - 2713

“The Use of Spontaneous Art in Education and Psychotherapy”.

61 2714 - 2718

“The Use of Spontaneous Art in Psychotherapy”.

61 2719 - 2720

“The Use of Spontaneous Art in the Treatment of Disturbed Children”.

61 2721 - 2722

“Value and Use of Spontaneous Art in Education”.

61 2723 - 2724

“The Value of Art Therapy to Art Educators”.

61 2725 - 2729

“The Value of Art Therapy Training to Undergraduate Students”.

61 2730

“Visual Unity in Man's Expression: from Primeval Man to the Art of Mental Patients Today”.

61 2731 - 2746

“Visual Unity in Man's Expression: from Primeval Man to the Art of Mental Patients Today”.

62 2747 - 2777

“What Dynamic Psychology Has to Offer Art Educators”.

63 2778

“What Is Art Therapy?”.

63 2779 - 2784

Untitled lectures.

63 2785 - 2803

2.  Discussions/Responses.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by title of original paper. Naumburg's responses as a discussant at conferences.

Box Folder

Discussion of “Analytical Therapy of Adults through Painting” (Stern).

63 2804 - 2808

Discussion of “An Exploratory Investigation of the Personalities of Creative Adolescent High School Students” (Hammer).

63 2809 - 2815

Discussion of “The Use of Children's Graphic Art in Psychiatric Diagnosis, Therapy and Teaching” (Rabinovitch/Dubo).

63 2816

Discussion of “The Use of Creative Art in the Psychotherapy of a Ten Year Old Girl” (Prall).

63 2817 - 2818

Discussion of an untitled paper (Dax).

63 2819

Return to Top »

V.  Exhibits.

Series Description

Arranged alphabetically by exhibit title. Catalog texts and notes from exhibits of patient artwork.

Box Folder

The Art Expression of a Behavior Problem Boy and an Adolescent Schizophrenic Girl.

64 2820 - 2822

Art Expression of Schizophrenic Adolescent Girls and Behavior Problem Boys.

64 2823 - 2827

Art Therapy in Diagnosis and Treatment of Behavior Problem Children.

64 2828 - 2837

Art Therapy in the Treatment of a Depressed Woman.

64 2838 - 2857

Art Therapy in the Treatment of a Depressed Woman.

65 2858 - 2865

Art Therapy in the Treatment of a Seventeen Year Old Schizophrenic Girl.

65 2866 - 2881

Images and Hallucinations of an Alcoholic Patient during Art Therapy.

65 2882 - 2885

The Power of the Image: Symbolic Projections in Art Therapy.

66 2886 - 2901

The Psychotherapeutic Significance of the Art Productions of a College Girl.

66 2902 - 2907

The Role of Spontaneous Art in Education.

67 2908 - 2927

The Survival Value of Fantasy Projection in Art Therapy.

67 2928 - 2941

Troubled Waters.

68 2942 - 2965

The Universality of Sexual Symbolism.

69 2966 - 2980

The Use of Spontaneous Art in Psychotherapy.

69 2981

The Use of Spontaneous Art in Psychotherapy and Education.

69 2982 - 3002

War and Its Sublimation in Children's Art.

69 3003

Return to Top »

VI.  Client records (RESTRICTED).

Scope and Contents note

The material in this series is restricted from use until 2044.

A.  Juvenile patients (RESTRICTED).

Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by patient name. Files for 23 institutionalized or previously institutionalized children and adolescents, including artwork, photographs of artwork, and Naumburg's notes on therapy sessions. Records date from 1941 through 1956.

The material in this subseries is restricted from use until 2044.

Box Folder


70 3004 - 3015

"Beth" .

70 3016 - 3017


70 3018


70 3019


70 3020 - 3032


71 3033 - 3039


71 3040 - 3044


71 3045 - 3061


72 3062 - 3070


72 3071 - 3077


72 3078 - 3087


73 3088 - 3094


73 3095 - 3101


73 3102 - 3115


74 3116 - 3130


74 3131 - 3132


74 3133 - 3139


74 3140 - 3144


75 3145 - 3155


75 3156 - 3162


75 3163 - 3175


76 3176 - 3208


77 3209


77 3210


77 3211


77 3212 - 3226


77 3227 - 3233

B.  Adult clients (RESTRICTED).

Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by client name. Files for 23 adult clients, including artwork, photographs of artwork, client writing, and Naumburg's notes on therapy sessions. Records date from 1946 through 1973.

The material in this subseries is restricted from use until 2044.

Box Folder


77 3234


77 3235 - 3237

S.B. (1).

77 3238 - 3241


77 3242 - 3245


78 3246 - 3271


79 3272 - 3291

S.B. (2).

79 3292 - 3302


80 3303 - 3326

"Dr. F." .

80 3327


80 3328


80 3329 - 3331


80 3332 - 3335


80 3336 - 3348


81 3349 - 3358


81 3359 - 3369

"Mrs. K." .

81 3370


81 3371 - 3380


82 3381 - 3387


82 3388 - 3398


82 3399


82 3400 - 3419


83 3420 - 3430


83 3431 - 3457


84 3458 - 3460


84 3461


84 3462 - 3467


84 3468 - 3491


85 3492 - 3524


86 3525 - 3571


87 3572 - 3609


88 3610 - 3630

C.  Groups (RESTRICTED).

Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by institution or treatment focus. Files for patients or clients receiving art therapy treatment in a group therapy context.

The material in this subseries is restricted from use until 2044.

Box Folder

Caroline Zachry Institute Mental Health Study.

89 3631 - 3635

Bellevue Dramatic Therapy Group.

89 3636 - 3639

Obesity Study Therapy Group.

89 3640 - 3651

Psychiatric Institute Children's Ward.

89 3652 - 3669

Stuttering Students.

89 3670 - 3676

Stuttering Students.

90 3677 - 3716

Stuttering Students.

91 3717 - 3730

Vassar Hard-of-Hearing Research Group.

91 3731 - 3757


91 3758 - 3759

Return to Top »

VII.  Art Therapy courses.

A.  Early, 1950-1955.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged in chronological order. Includes syllabi and course lecture texts or notes.

Box Folder

The Use of Art Productions in Diagnosis and Therapy of Emotional Problems.

92 3760 - 3776

The Significance of Spontaneous Art Productions in Diagnosis and Therapy.

92 3777

Dynamic Psychology in the Creative Arts.

92 3778 - 3802

The Theory and Practice of Art Therapy.

92 3803

B.  New York University, 1958-1965.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged by department, course, and date. Includes course announcements, syllabi, course lecture texts or notes, bibliographies, and student questionnaires.

Box Folder

Art Education and Personality.

93 3804 - 3867

Art Education and Personality.

94 3869 - 3910

Art Education and Personality.

95 3911 - 3917

Art Education and Personality/Case Studies of Pupils with Emotional Blocks in Creativity.

95 3918 - 3926

Case Studies of Pupils with Emotional Blocks in Creativity.

95 3927 - 3943

Advanced Case Studies of Pupils with Emotional Blocks in Creativity.

95 3944 - 3945

Miscellaneous School of Education course.

95 3946

Principles and Procedures of Analytically Oriented Art Therapy.

95 3947 - 3960

Workshop in Analytically Oriented Art Therapy.

95 3961 - 3964

C.  New School for Social Research, 1965-1972.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged by course and date. Includes course announcements, syllabi, course lecture texts or notes, bibliographies, and student questionnaires.

Box Folder

Introduction to the Practice of Art Therapy.

96 3965 - 4005

Introduction to the Practice of Art Therapy.

97 4006 - 4017

Introduction to the Practice of Art Therapy/Art Therapy Case Studies.

97 4018 - 4025

Art Therapy Case Studies of Pupils or Patients Blocked in Creative Expression.

97 4026 - 4046

Miscellaneous New School materials.

97 4047 - 4049

D.  Visiting Instructor courses.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged chronologically. Includes course announcements, syllabi, course lecture texts or notes, bibliographies, and student questionnaires.

Box Folder

Institute of Pennsylvania Hospital, 1954.

98 4050

D.C. Occupational Therapy Association, 1956.

98 4051

Judge Baker Foundation (Boston), 1958.

98 4052

Miami University (Oxford, Ohio), 1962.

98 4053

American Psychological Association Mtg., 1963.

98 4054 - 4058

V.A. Day Hospital (Boston), 1966.

98 4059

V.A. Day Hospital (Boston), 1967.

98 4060

University of California, Davis, 1968.

98 4061 - 4067

Columbia University, Teachers College, 1972.

98 4068 - 4078

National Psychological Association for Psychoanalysis, undated.

98 4079

E.  Private instruction.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged chronologically. Announcements and outlines for the seminars Naumburg held in her apartment.

Box Folder

Seminar in Art Therapy.

98 4080 - 4086

F.  Miscellaneous course materials.


Notes for unidentified courses or courses never given.

Box Folder


98 4087 - 4098

Return to Top »

VIII.  Student work.

Series Description

Arranged alphabetically by name of student and date. Book reviews and case studies written by students in Naumburg's courses.

Box Folder

Alf - Craig.

99 4099 - 4132

Damiani - Gerber.

100 4133 - 4157

Glazer - Krebs.

101 4158 - 4197

Layton - Lymon.

102 4198 - 4224

Magier - Quenet.

103 4225 - 4256

Ragla - Ruben.

104 4257 - 4289

Sanger - Stoloff.

105 4290 - 4315

Teller - Zuckerman.

106 4316 - 4344

Unidentified student papers.

106 4345

Return to Top »

IX.  Consciousness investigations.

A.  The Work/Gurdjieff.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged chronologically. Primarily notes from work in A. R. Orage's groups, including formulations (self-observations) and notes from lectures on literature, dating from 1924 to 1928.

Box Folder


107 4346 - 4359

Literature lecture notes.

107 4360 - 4367


107 4368 - 4369

B.  Pojodag House.


Notes from occult and philosophical studies, dating from 1930 to 1932.

Box Folder

Publicity and study documents.

107 4370


107 4371


107 4372 - 4379

C.  Eileen Garrett.

1.  Correspondence.


Correspondence among members of Eileen Garrett's circle, including Naumburg, between June 1933 and August 1934.

Box Folder


108 4380 - 4396

2.  Sittings.


Transcripts of conversations between spirit personalities (through the person of Garrett in a trance) and Margaret Naumburg, both with Naumburg alone and with other 'sitters,' between January 1933 and December 1939.

Box Folder

Partial Index.

108 4397

1933 January 1 - March 30.

108 4398 - 4419

1933 April 1 - May 25.

109 4420 - 4469

1933 May 30 - September 7.

110 4470 - 4513

1933 September 8 - 1934 March 7.

111 4514 - 4556

1934 March 8 - August 18.

112 4557 - 4599

1934 August 19 - December 6.

113 4600 - 4649

1934 December 10 - 1935 April 9.

114 4650 - 4689

1935 April 15 - November 14.

115 4690 - 4731

1935 December 3 - 1937 December 21.

116 4732 - 4786

1938 January 10 - 1939 December.

117 4787 - 4811


117 4812 - 4816

File folders.

117 4817

3.  Naumburg Writings with Garrett's Guidance.


Writing projects undertaken with instructions received in sittings and based on research done with and on Garrett.

Box Folder


117 4818 - 4826


118 4827 - 4836

The Attitude of Analysis to Multiple Personality and Its Application to Mediumship.

118 4837 - 4875

The Attitude of Analysis to Multiple Personality...

119 4876 - 4918

Garrett autobiographical material.

120 4919 - 4927

Clairvoyance notes.

120 4928 - 4934

Clairvoyant impressions of Adolf Hitler.

120 4935

Ghost of Maitland Manor.

120 4936 - 4957

Healing notes.

120 4958

Jung notes.

120 4959

Mediumship notes.

120 4960

My Life as a Search for the Meaning of Mediumship.

121 4961 - 4973

Poltergeist notes.

121 4974 - 4996

Principles notes.

121 4997 - 5000

Psychology notes.

121 5000 - 5004

Sexuality/duality notes.

121 5005 - 5007

Sexuality/duality notes.

122 5008 - 5018

Supernormal powers notes.

122 5019 - 5023

Symmetry notes.

122 5024 - 5027


122 5028 - 5029

4.  Garrett Writings.

Box Folder

"The Attitude of Modern Science to Parapsychology" .

122 5030-5031


122 5032

5.  Research Notes.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by name of source author. Passages copied out in researching for writing projects under Garrett.

Box Folder

Bernheim - Wercollier.

122 5033 - 5044


122 5045 - 5046

6.  Scientific Studies of Garrett.


Arranged alphabetically by name of researcher.

Box Folder


122 5047 - 5055


123 5056 - 5063


123 5064


123 5065 - 5073


123 5074


123 5075

D.  Other psychics.

Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by name of psychic. Includes consultations, test situations, examples of automatic writing, and horoscopes.

Box Folder

"Barit" .

123 5076

"Beatrice" .

123 5077

Beaurepaire, Gerald de.

123 5078 - 5080

Crandall, Ella Phillips.

123 5081 - 5082

Dame, Elma.

123 5083

Dowden, Hester.

123 5084 - 5088

Grady, Chester.

123 5089 - 5090

"F.H." .

123 5091

Home, D. D.

123 5092

Kellogg, D. D.

123 5093 - 5106

Kellogg, D. D.

124 5107 - 5111

Kingsley, Myra.

124 5112

Krishnaswami, J.?.

124 5113

MacCarthy, Ivie.

124 5114 - 5117

Mühl, Anita M.

124 5118 - 5119

"J.R." .

124 5120

"Mrs. Rouse" .

124 5121

Severn, Elizabeth.

124 5122

Vaughan, Ruth.

124 5123

Wehner, George.

124 5124

E.  Other phenomena.

Description & Arrangement

Materials on dreams, arranged alphabetically by name of dreamer, and the correspondence and experiments of an ESP group of which Naumburg was a member, each arranged chronologically.

Box Folder


124 5125 - 5132

ESP experiments.

124 5133 - 5149

F.  Works by others.

Box Folder

Articles/reprints arranged alphabetically by author.

125 5150 - 5179

Periodical issues arranged alphabetically by title.

125 5180 - 5184

File folders.

125 5185

G.  Miscellaneous.


Notes and file folders.

Box Folder


125 5186 - 5189

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X.  Proposals.

Series Description

Arranged chronologically. Includes proposals for an exhibit of art of the Western Hemisphere, schizophrenia research, a Guggenheim fellowship for support of a book project, Fulbright funds for travel to South America, the establishment of the American Art Therapy Association, and a Radcliffe Institute fellowship for support in organizing her papers.

Box Folder

Three Americas Exhibition, 1930s.

126 5190 - 5230

Scottish Rite schizophrenia proposal, 1941.

126 5231 - 5236

Schizophrenia research proposal, 1945.

126 5237

Children's center proposal, 1945.

126 5238 - 5243

V.A. demonstration plan, 1951?.

127 5244 - 5248

Matchette Foundation materials, 1951.

127 5249

Guggenheim Fellowship application, 1952.

127 5250 - 5260

Institute for the Study of Man application, 1957.

127 5261 - 5276

Fulbright-Hayes grant application, 1966.

127 5277 - 5279

Art in Action research proposal, 1967?.

127 5280

American Art Therapy Assn. plans, 1968-1969.

127 5281 - 5287

Book proposal, 1970.

127 5288

Radcliffe Institute Fellowship application, 1973.

127 5289 - 5298

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XI.  Biographical/Professional information.

Series Description

Includes interviews of and articles about Naumburg, curricula vitae, and biographical summaries, each category arranged chronologically. Also includes biographical dictionary entries, a New York Academy of Sciences membership certificate, and letterhead samples.

Box Folder

Interviews and articles re Naumburg, arranged chrono.

128 5299 - 5313

Curricula vitae, arranged chronologically.

128 5314 - 5325

Biographical summaries, arranged chronologically.

128 5326 - 5336

Biographical dictionary entries.

128 5337

File folders.

128 5338

New York Academy of Sciences membership certificate.

128 5339

Letterhead examples.

128 5340 - 5341

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XII.  Works by others.

A.  Articles/Reprints.


Arranged alphabetically by author.

Box Folder

Abenheimer - Bell.

129 5342 - 5383

Bender - De Mille.

130 5384 - 5437

Delay - Fromm-Reichmann.

131 5438 - 5481

Gardner - Klapman.

132 5482 - 5531

Koerner - Maisel.

133 5532 - 5581

Mandelbaum - Pines.

134 5582 - 5640

Polatin - Spotnitz.

135 5641 - 5693

Steed - Zurmuehlen.

136 5694 - 5745

Unidentified authors.

136 5746 - 5748

File folders.

136 5749

B.  Periodicals.


Arranged alphabetically by title and by date.

Box Folder

Acta - Art.

137 5750 - 5771

Arts - Bulletin of Art.

138 5772 - 5805

Bulletin of the - Genetic.

139 5806 - 5828

Impromptu - Psychoanalytic.

140 5829 - 5851

Psychology - Zeitschrift.

141 5852 - 5874

C.  Other materials.

Box Folder
Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by organization or business, when possible. Includes pamphlets describing organizations and publisher advertisements for books.

142 5875 - 5899
Conference materials for conferences at which Naumburg was not a presenter.
Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by name of sponsoring organization. Programs and announcements for conferences in which Naumburg was not a participant.

142 5900 - 5906
Course announcements for organizations and courses for which Naumburg was not an instructor.
Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by institution name. Announcements and bulletins for courses in programs where Naumburg was not an instructor.

142 5907 - 5912

Arranged alphabetically by organization.

142 5913 - 5917
Exhibit catalogs for exhibits in which Naumburg was not involved.
Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by exhibit title. Catalogs for exhibits in which Naumburg was not involved.

143 5918 - 5933
Iconography collection.

Volumes of Psychopathologie de l'expression: une collection iconographique internationale, consisting of folders of unbound reproductions of images.

143 5934 - 5939

Images saved by Naumburg by tracing, cutting from magazines, or purchasing postcards.

143 5940 - 5947

Arranged alphabetically by organization or topic.

144 5948 - 5981
Psychology vocabulary reference.

Psychology vocabulary chart.

144 5982
Research notes (arranged alphabetically by source author, then by title).
Description & Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by source author and title. Passages copied for use in research.

145 5983 - 6038

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XIII.  Miscellaneous.

Series Description

Includes medical notes, art supply notes, instructions for machinery such as tape recorders, financial notes, and notes by unidentified writers.

Box Folder

Medical/physical notes.

146 6039 - 6040

Art supply notes.

146 6041

Technical materials.

146 6042

Miscellaneous financial notes and records.

146 6043

Miscellaneous notes.

146 6044 - 6045

Miscellaneous notes not by Naumburg.

146 6046

Miscellaneous material.

146 6047

Miscellaneous file folders.

146 6048

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XIV.  Slides.

Series Description

2" × 2" glass slides edged with disintegrating tape, used in lectures and courses. The slides are primarily of patient artwork and were frequently used in more than one lecture. They arrived gathered into small groups with rubber bands, of ten with notes written by Naumburg. These groups were transferred into pockets in binders, preserving the groups where possible. If there was a note describing the group, it was placed in a pocket immediately preceding the group; if there was a note indic ating a missing slide, it was filed in the order found, as if it were a slide.


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XV.  Photographs.

Series Description

Small photographs sleeved in mylar and filed in binders. This series includes Naumburg family photographs and photographs of Naumburg; photographs of the artwork of patients M.R. and G.C., whose cases were featured in Schizophrenic Art; photographs of the artwork of client M.W., whose case was the basis of  Psychoneurotic Art; and the prints and negatives from  Introduction to Art Therapy, the 1973 edition of  Studies of the 'Free' Art of Behavior Problem Children and Adolescents as a Means of Diagnosis and Therapy, originally published in 1947.

All photographs of patient artwork are restricted until 2044 (boxes 155-159).


Family photographs; Patient artwork (M.R.) (RESTRICTED).


Patient artwork (G.C.) (RESTRICTED).


Patient artwork (G.C.) (RESTRICTED).


Patient artwork (M.W.) (RESTRICTED).


Introduction to Art Therapy (prints).


Introduction to Art Therapy (negatives).




Patient artwork (G.C.) (RESTRICTED).


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XVI.  Photograph albums.

Series Description

Pages removed from three old binders, sleeved in mylar and placed in new binders in their original page order. The three albums were of photographs from the book Schizophrenic Art and the exhibits  "The Psychotherapeutic Significance of the Art Productions of a College Girl" and  "The Survival Value of Fantasy Projection in Art Therapy."


Schizophrenic Art illustrations.


"Psychotherapeutic Significance..." exhibit images.


"Survival Value of Fantasy..." exhibit images.


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XVII.  Oversize.

A.  Photographs and Printed Materials.


Includes a photograph album containing photographs of the artwork of patient G.C., miscellaneous photographs including some pictures of Naumburg and her family, newspaper clippings, and exhibit signs.


Photograph album of patient artwork (G.C.) (RESTRICTED).


Miscellaneous Photographs, including photographs of Naumburg, family members, and patient artwork.


Newspaper clippings.


Newspaper clippings (full length).


Exhibit signs.


B.  Audio Recordings.


Includes reel to reel tapes of client sessions and class sessions, and a cassette tape of a late interview of Naumburg.


Client records (G.K.), 8 reel to reel tapes (RESTRICTED).


Client records (unidentified), 2 reel to reel tapes.


Courses (Case Studies, 6 reel to reel tapes, 1959-60),.


Naumburg interview, 1 cassette tape.


C.  Memorabilia.


Includes one black glove, one white glove, and three envelopes used in a psychic experiment; a conference badge for the 4th International Congress of Psychiatry, held in Madrid in 1966; and a photomechanical printing block for a 1930s newspaper photograph of Naumburg.


* 2 gloves

* 3 envelopes

* conference badge

* photomechanical printing block (image of Naumburg).


D.  Client Clay Sculptures (RESTRICTED).


6 boxes of sculptures by patient G.C. and 1 box of sculptures by client M.W. These items are restricted from use until 2044.


Juvenile patient artwork (G.C., 4 items).


Juvenile patient artwork (G.C., 7 items).


Juvenile patient artwork (G.C., 5 items).


Juvenile patient artwork (G.C., 5 items).


Juvenile patient artwork (G.C., 5 items).


Juvenile patient artwork (G.C., 2 items).


Adult client artwork (M.W., 6 items).


E.  Client Drawings and Paintings (RESTRICTED).


4.5 drawers of juvenile patient artworks, arranged alphabetically by name, 3.5 drawers of adult client artworks, arranged alphabetically by name, and 1 drawer of artwork from student case studies, arranged alphabetically by student name. These items are restricted from use until 2044.

Juvenile Patients (F.B. - A.C.).

Juvenile Patients (G.C. - H.F.).

Juvenile Patients (F.K. - J.L.).

Juvenile Patients (M.R.).

Juvenile Patients (E.W.).

Adult Clients (P.B. - A.J.).

Adult Clients (V.P. - A.S.).

Adult Clients (M.W.).

Adult Clients (M.W.).

Artwork from student case studies.

F.  Exhibit Signs.


G.  Client Artwork in Dietrich.


4 framed paintings from a student case study, 2 oversize paintings by juvenile patient H.F. in oversize poster shelving, and 1 sculpture in stone of a torso. The artwork by juvenile patients is restricted from use until 2044.

4 framed paintings from a student case study.

2 oversize paintings by a juvenile patient (H.F.) in oversize poster shelving (RESTRICTED).

1 unidentified stone sculpture.

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