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Louis Shotridge Collection

0047

Louis Shotridge Collection

0047

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the University of Pennsylvania. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the web.

Summary Information

Repository:
University of Pennsylvania: Penn Museum Archives
Creator:
Shotridge, Louis
Title:
Louis Shotridge Collection
Date [inclusive]:
1905-1937
Call Number:
0047
Extent:
1 linear foot
Language:
English
Abstract:
The papers of Louis Shotridge are one of the most extensive groups in the Arctic research collections of the University of Pennsylvania Museum Archives. Shotridge, a Tlingit Indian, was intermittently employed by the museum to make ethnographic collections of Northwest Coast materials between 1903 and 1912. The archives has papers concerning his original research, arranged topically, manuscripts for articles published in The Museum Journal, oral histories, Tlingit language notes, and general ethnographic notes on the Tlingit and other Northwest Coast groups.
Cite as:
[Item name]. Box [Box number]. Louis Shotridge collection. Penn Museum Archives. Accessed [Date accessed].
PDF Version:

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Summary Information

Repository:
University of Pennsylvania: Penn Museum Archives
Creator:
Booy, Theodoor Hendrik Nikolaas de, 1882-1919
Title:
Theodoor de Booy Sierra de Perija expedition records
Date [inclusive]:
1916-1919
Call Number:
1122
Extent:
0.13 linear foot (The collection consists of two folders of correspondence and linguistic material and two folders of photographs in an archival box. The lantern slide collection from the expedition is in the photographic section)
Language:
English
Abstract:
Theodoor deBooy, a native of the Netherlands, immigrated to the United States in 1906, becoming a citizen in 1916. Trained neither as an archaeologist nor anthropologist, he nevertheless traveled independently to the Bahamas in 1911 to study the Caicos group of islands and, in 1912, published his "Lucayan Remains on the Caicos Islands." From that time on, de Booy dedicated himself to the field of archaeology. The collection includes correspondence with George Byron Gordon, Director of the Penn Museum, a catalog of artifacts, photographs, a bibliography of the region, and lists of his lantern slides, how they should be colored, and how used in publication by the Museum.
Cite as:
[Item name]. Box [Box number]. Theodoor de Booy Sierra de Perija expedition records. Penn Museum Archives. Accessed [Date accessed].
PDF Version:

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Biography/History

Louis Situwuka Shotridge, a Tlingit indian of noble birth, was born in Klukwan, near Haines, Alaska in 1882. He is known for being an American art collector and ethnological assistant, an expert on the traditions of his people, the Tlingit nation of southeastern Alaska. His Tlingit name was Stoowukháa, which means "Astute One."

Louis atended the Mission School in Haines where he met is future wife, Florence Dennis. Florence was an accomplished weaver of baskets and displayed her technique at the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland, Oregon in 1905. Louis accompanied his wife to sell artifacts from Klukwan. He sold forty-nine items to George Byron Gordon of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and was hired by Gordon to collect more objects for the museum.

In 1912, Shotridge visited Philadelphia and met Frank Speck who introduced Shotridge to Canadian anthropologist Edward Sapir. Soon, Shotridge was providing essays, information and objects to Sapir also. A meeting with Franz Boas in 1914 in New York resulted in Shotridge's providing him with recordings of the Tlingit language and musicology. This led to Shotridge holding weekly round-table discussions with Boas and other anthropologists at Columbia University.

Shotridge was employed by the Penn Museum for seventeen years as an assistant curator. He was dismissed in 1932 at the height of the Museum's financial crisis.

Louis Shotridge participated in four expeditions, being co-director of the first with his wife, Florence: John Wanamaker Expedition I 1915-1919 John wanamaker Expedition II 1922-1927 Expedition August 1928-May 1929 Expedition 1930-1932

While each expedition included the collection of artifacts the first wanamaker expedition included trips to Northern Chilkoot and Chilkot regions to record Tlingit songs. during the second Wanamaker trip, Shotridge travelled to photograph abandoned and living Tlingit communities. During the third season Louis was an active member of the Alaska Native Brotherhood and helped organize the Grand Camp in Sitka in 1929. The trip was shortened due to the death of his wife and financial concerns at the musuem. He purchased only two objects on this trip, a Kaagwaantaan shark helmet and a wooden tray. Louis returned to install the Museum’s new American Wing in May of 1929. The fourth expedition was shortened due to the Depression and the termination of most museum employees including Shotridge.

Following his return to Sitka Shotridge made his living from fishing, doing odd jobs and selling the occasional artifact. In 1935, he took a job as a government stream guard. His responsibility was to prevent fishing in closed areas, and it was an unpopular duty among Native fishermen.

In 1937, Shotridge was found on the ground near his cabinet in Redoubt Bay, about 16 miles south of Sitka. He had a broken neck and had apparently lain there for several days before a local schoolteacher found him. He was taken to a hospital in Sitka where he died 10 days later. The coroner's jury concluded that Shotridge had fallen from the roof and ruled it an accident. while this is a generally accepted fact, there were rumors that his death was not accidental in the community

Biography/History

Theodoor de Booy, a native of Hellevoetsluis, the Netherlands, was the son of Vice-Admiral C.J.G. de Booy and Mary Hobson de Booy. Born in 1882 and educated at the Royal Naval Institute of Holland, de Booy immigrated to the United States in 1906 and gained his United States citizenship in 1916. De Booy married Elizabeth Hamilton Smith of Louisville, Kentucky and resided in New York City and Yonkers, New York.

De Booy made independent trips to the Bahamas in 1911 to study the Caicos group of islands and, in 1912, published his "Lucayan Remains on the Caicos Islands." From that time on, de Booy dedicated himself to the field of archaeology. De Booy joined The Heye Museum, now The Museum of the American Indian, initially as a field explorer for the West Indies. As a part of this work, de Booy traveled to Jamaica, the Bahamas, Santo Domingo, Cuba, the Island of Margarita, Venezuela, and Trinidad. De Booy accomplished some work for the University Museum while in Trinidad in 1915. By 1916, he had made three trips to Santo Domingo and Martinique.

Biographical information differs on whether de Booy severed his ties with The Heye Museum before his trip to Venezuela for the University Museum, however, in 1916 de Booy undertook a six week trip to the Sierra de Perija region of Venezuela, primarily an ethnographic and geographial investigation of the area and the Macao Indians, a Motilone group of natives. This mountanous region of Venezuela close to the border with Colombia was previously unknown and thought to be inhabited by a savage tribe that maintained the mountain regions free of white exploration and inhabitants.

De Booy traded for artifacts, gathered data on the native language, and took photographs of the people and the region. He communicated extensively with the Director of the University Museum, George Byron Gordon, and was frank in his hopes that his work would result in a full-time position with the University Museum. De Booy's "The People of the Mist" was published in the Museum Journal in 1918 as well as in The Geographical Review of the American Geographical Society. Upon his return, de Booy lectured about the trip, accompanied by a lantern slide presentation at the University Museum as well as in New York City. The position with the University Museum did not materialize and de Booy's letters reflect his disappointment and need for self promotion.

Theodoor de Booy was working on a book about the expedition at the time of his death, a victim of the influenza epidemic of 1919. His obituary in The New York Times revealed that de Booy contributed 4000 specimens to The Museum of the American Indian. He published monographs on the "pre-Columbian history of the Antilles" as well as "The Newly Acquired Virgin Lands of the United States and the British Virgin Islands." De Booy maintained membership in the American Anthropological Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and The Order of the Liberator of Venezuela.

Scope and Contents

The papers of Louis Shotridge are one of the most extensive groups in the Arctic research collections of the University of Pennsylvania Museum Archives. The Archives has papers concerning his original research, arranged topically, manuscripts for articles published in The Museum Journal, oral histories, Tlingit language notes, and general ethnographic notes on the Tlingit and other Northwest Coast groups. Several items in this section are of special interest. A 1919 published map is annotated with Shotridge’s itinerary during one of his travels seeking collections and information. Also a folder of original drawings, attributed to Shotridge, that illustrate house plans and artistic motifs. Finally, an indexed ethnographic card file fills one box. This file contains information on many aspects of native life in southeast Alaska, much of it unpublished. Certain titled sections of the file have no cards; otherwise, the file appears to be relatively complete, with only a few cards obviously missing. The only other noticeable gaps in the research material are a few incomplete article manuscripts.

Scope and Contents

Theodoor de Booy, a native of The Netherlands, immigrated to the United States in 1906 and became a citizen in 1916. He began his career as an independent explorer of the islands in The Bahamas in 1911 and 1912 and did some work for the University Museum before joining the Heye Museum, now The Museum of the American Indian, in New York as a field explorer. deBooy traveled extensively in the area of the West Indies for the Heye Museum but by 1918 he planned a trip to the Perija mountain region of Venezuela under the auspices of The American Geographic Society and the University Museum. de Booy hoped that his work would gain him a full-time position at the University Museum.

The Sierra de Perija mountains of Venezuela, close to the border with Colombia, were previously unexplored before deBooy's expedition. He spent six weeks investigating the ethnology of the Macao Indians, a Motilone tribe. de Booy traded for a collection of artifacts, recorded their language, and took numerous photographs of the people. The Museum Journal and the Geographical Review each published his account, "The People of the Mist" and deBooy was working on a book about his trip when he succombed to influenza in 1919.

The collection consists of four folders in an archival box and lantern slides in the photographic section. Two folders pertain to correspondence and de Booy's lists and vocabulary guides and linguistic data. Photographs are contained in the remaining two folders.

The correspondence is almost exclusively with George Byron Gordon, Director of the University Museum. The letters are in chronological order dating from 1/22/1916 to 1/27/1919, just a few weeks before de Booy's death. de Booy wrote several letters a week to the Museum. The collection includes three requests from Elizabeth de Booy for prompt payment of her husband's monthly salary in June and July, without specifying the year. Among the collection of correspondence are three letters to George Gordon from The Caribbean Petroleum Company that address the problem of getting a shipment of artifacts from this expedition to the United States. A single letter to George Gordon from George H. Pepper of The Museum of the American Indian, offers the University Museum the lantern slide collection of de Booy.

Along with the correspondence are several lists compiled by de Booy that accompanied his letters to Dr. Gordon. A four page "Catalog of Archaeological Specimens Collected at Pueblo Viejo" is not dated. A copy of this list is also in the folder. An informational "Bibliography of Regions East and West of Sierra de Perija" is nine pages of information about the region and the lore of the Motilone tribe. Six pages detail the "Color Scheme for Lantern Slides" with some small drawings and notes. A "List of the de Booy Lantern Slides" by site and signed by de Booy is four pages long. de Booy also sent a list of "Photographs to be used with Article on the Sierra de Perija."

Other written materials include five loose pages of vocabulary that are undated and in de Booy's hand and a small notebook dated 1/22 and labeled "Macoa (Motilan) Vocabulary, Sierra de Perija, Venezuela. Gathered by Theodoor de Booy, probably 1918." The words are organized alphabetically. The back cover of the notebook contains a note from J. Alden Mason, 10/2/56.

Two folders of photographs are placed in the photographic archives. The pictures are of various sizes and there are many duplicates. All have negative numbers on the reverse side. Many of the pictures have written notes by de Booy. The subjects are mostly Motilan men, women, and children engaged in everyday activities or at festival time. There are a few photographs of their lodgings and of the geography of the area.

Administrative Information

Publication Information

University of Pennsylvania: Penn Museum Archives

Publication Information

University of Pennsylvania: Penn Museum Archives,  November 2009

Finding Aid Author

Finding aid prepared by Eleanor M. King, December, 1982 and Alessandro Pezzati, October, 2007

Finding Aid Author

Finding aid prepared by Jody Rodgers

Revision Description

 3/1/12

Use Restrictions

Although many items from the archives are in the public domain, copyright may be retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law. The user is fully responsible for compliance with relevant copyright law.

Use Restrictions

Although many items from the archives are in the public domain, copyright may be retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law. The user is fully responsible for compliance with relevant copyright law.

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)
  • University of Pennsylvania. Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
Form/Genre(s)
  • Correspondence
  • Manuscripts for publication
  • Maps
  • Negatives (photographic)
  • Photographic prints
  • Photographs
Personal Name(s)
  • Gordon, G. B. (George Byron), 1870-1927
  • Sapir, Edward, 1889-1939
  • Shotridge, Louis
  • Speck, Frank G., 1881-1950
Subject(s)
  • Anthropological museums and collections
  • Ethnology
  • Ethnology--Indigenous peoples
  • Tlingit art
  • Tlingit Indians

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Controlled Access Headings

Form/Genre(s)
  • Correspondence
  • Photographs
Personal Name(s)
  • Booy, Theodoor Hendrik Nikolaas de, 1882-1919
  • Gordon, G. B. (George Byron), 1870-1927
Subject(s)
  • Anthropological linguistics
  • Anthropology
  • Ethnology
  • Ethnology--Indigenous peoples

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Bibliography

Mason, J. A., "Louis Shotridge" Expedition, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 11-16

Shotridge, Florence, "The Life of a Chilkat Indian Girl." The Museum Journal 4:3. 1913

Shotridge, Louis, "War Helmets and Clan Hats of the Tlingit Indians." The Museum Journal 10:1-2. 1919.

Shotridge, Louis, "A Visit to the Tsimshian Indians." The Museum Journal 10:1-2,3. 1919.

Shotridge, Louis, "The Bride of Tongass (A Study of the Tlingit Bridal Ceremony)." The Museum Journal 20:2. 1929.

Shotridge, Louis, "The Kaguanton Shark Helmet." The Museum Journal 20:3-4. 1929.

Shotridge, Louis, "How Ats-ha Followed the Hide of His Comrade to the Land of the Yek (A Tlingit Legend)." The Museum Journal 21:3-4. 1930.

Shotridge, Louis, "Keyt-Gooshe 'Killer Whale’s Dorsal Fin' (A Tlingit Dance Baton)." The Museum Journal 10:4. 1919.

Shotridge, Louis, "Ghost of Courageous Adventurer (A Tlingit Legend)." The Museum Journal 11:1. 1920.

Shotridge, Louis, "My Northland Revisited." The Museum Journal 8:2. 1917.

Shotridge, Louis, "Anthropological exploration of Alaska." Science, n.s., XLIX: 1273:491. 1919.

Shotridge, Louis, "Land Otter - Man (A Tlingit Myth)." The Museum Journal 13:1. 1922.

Shotridge, Louis, "The Emblems of the Tlingit Culture." The Museum Journal 19:4. 1928.

Shotridge, Louis, "Tlingit Woman’s Root Basket." The Museum Journal 12:3. 1921.

Shotridge, Louis and Florence Shotridge, "Indians of the Northwest." The Museum Journal 4:3. 1913.

Wanneh, Gewasa, "Situwaka Chief of the Chilkats" Society of American Indians, Quarterly Journal, vol. II, pp. 280-283

Collection Inventory

Correspondence, 1905-1937.

Series Description

Correspondence mostly with Museum Director George B. Gordon, but also to Director Horace H. F. Jayne and Jane McHugh, describing progress of fieldwork and collecting. Also included are expense reports and lists of artifacts purchased. Letters from Gordon to Shotridge until October, 1922 are in the Director’s Office letterpress copybooks; after that date, carbon copies of Museum letters are included in the Shotridge correspondence. Arranged chronologically.

Related Archival Materials note

See Gordon Letterpress books for correspondence from Gordon to Shotridge.

Box

Correspondence (1 of 10), 1905-1909.

1

Correspondence (2 of 10), 1911-1917.

1

Correspondence (3 of 10), 1918.

1

Correspondence (4 of 10), 1919-1923.

1

Correspondence (5 of 10), 1924.

1

Correspondence (6 of 10), 1925.

1

Correspondence (7 of 10), 1926-1927.

1

Correspondence (8 of 10), 1928-1929.

1

Correspondence (9 of 10), 1930-1931.

1

Correspondence (10 of 10), 1932-1937.

1

Financial Records, 1912-1932.

Scope and Contents note

Cancelled checks and vouchers for fieldwork and collecting expenses. Expense reports are found in the Correspondence Series. Arranged chronologically.

Box

Canceled Checks and Vouchers.

1

Curatorial, 1911-1930.

Scope and Contents note

Letters, memoranda, reports, and collection notes relating to miscellaneous curatorial duties performed by Shotridge in the American Section. Also included is work by Shotridge on Museum exhibitions. Arranged topically.

Box

Miscellaneous Correspondence.

1

Exhibit Labels.

1

Note on Root Basket.

1

Miscellaneous, including lists of collections.

1

North American Exhibition-1925 Room AA.

2

North American Exhibition-1925 Room BB-Alaska Eskimo.

2

Manuscripts, 1913-1933.

Scope and Contents note

Drafts of articles published by Shotridge in The Museum Journal, recounting Tlingit myths, expedition narratives, and descriptions and interpretations of artifacts. Also includes some unpublished material and public school lectures. Arranged chronologically.

Box

"Chilkat Dwelling House" and "Smoking or Food Preparing House" 1913.

1

"War Helmets and Clan Hats of the Tlingit Indians" 1919.

1

"The Ghost of Courageous Adventurer" 1920.

1

"Tlingit Woman's Root Basket" 1921.

1

"Land Otter-Man" 1922.

1

"The Emblems of the Tlingit Culture" ( Medoff) 1928.

1

"The Bride of Tongass" 1929.

1

"The Kaguanton Shark Helmet" 1929.

1

"How Ats-ha Followed the Hide of His Comrade to the Land of the Yek" [Fragment] 1930.

1

"Vengeance" 1933.

1

"The Vanishing Nobility of Alaska".

1

Public School Lectures— “First White Man”.

2

Public School Lectures -“Lantern Slides — The American Territory of Alaska — Its Peoples and Its History”.

2

Public School Lectures-“Alaska-The Country and Its People”.

2

Public School Lectures-“Moldy Head-Adventure of ‘Alive in Pond’ in the Salmon World”.

2

Research, 1914-1930.

Scope and Contents note

Includes one notebook of linguistic work prepared by Shotridge for and with Franz Boas, and a box of notes on the ethnography, language, history, genealogy, etc., of the Tlingit. Arranged topically.

Box

Notebook on Tlingit language and grammar, Shotridge work with Franz Boas; includes Tlingit songs and article for The Museum Journal.

1

Ethnographic notes (oversize from card file).

1

Ethnographic notes-Photocopies from the Alaska State Museum Ethnographic notes-Photocopies from the Alaska State Museum.

1

Ethnographic Notes with subject tabs.

2

Shotridge negative sleeves with identifications, 4x5 (nos. 14704–14950, mostly 14704-14792).

2

Shotridge negative sleeves with identifications, 5x7 (nos. 14744–14754).

2
Visual Materials.
Scope and Contents note

Approximately 500 photographs of people and places in Alaska and British Columbia taken by Shotridge in the field, as well as an annotated published map of Southeastern Alaska used by Shotridge, and drawings of houses and decorative motifs made by Shotridge for a Museum Journal article. Maps and drawings stored in oversize flat files, photographic collections stored by type with the negative, lantern slide, or print collections. Two additional drawings and a hand-drawn map are found in the Ethnographic Notes.

Drawer
Drawings of Tlingit houses and decorative motifs, mostly published in "Indians of the Northwest," The Museum Journal Vol IV No. 3 (Philadelphia: September, 1913). Attributed to Louis Shotridge.
P-36
Drawer

Chilkat blanket. .

P-36

Artistic motifs and portrait of Tlingit man. .

P-36

Artistic motifs. .

P-36

Fig. 68, Chilkat dwelling house, floor plan. .

P-36

Fig. 69, Chilkat dwelling house, framework. .

P-36

Fig. 70, Dwelling house, rear wall and framework. Fig. 71, Dwelling house, front wall and framework. .

P-36

Fig. 72, Manufacturing of boards and planks. Fig. 73, Cornice. Fig. 74, Making of corner-post. Unpublished figure, Cornice. .

P-36

Fig. 75, Dwelling house, exterior side wall. Fig. 76, Longitudinal section of dwelling house. .

P-36

Fig. 77, Food preparing house, floor plan. .

P-36

Fig. 78, Food preparing house, transverse section showing construction. Fig. 80, Food preparing house, front wall and framework. .

P-36

Fig. 79, Food preparing house, framework. .

P-36

Fig. 81, Food preparing house, longitudinal section. Fig. 82, Food preparing house, exterior side wall. .

P-36

Published map of Southeastern Alaska annotated with Shotridge’s itinerary. 8002. Alaska, Dixon Entrance to Cape St. Elias (Washington, DC: U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey).

M-58

Photographs (including prints, negatives, and lantern slides).

Scope and Contents note

A list of negatives in this collection is available by request.

Collection Inventory

Correspondence and linguistic data.

Photographs.

Louis Shotridge Collection

0047

Louis Shotridge Collection

0047

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the University of Pennsylvania. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the web.

Summary Information

Repository:
University of Pennsylvania: Penn Museum Archives
Creator:
Shotridge, Louis
Title:
Louis Shotridge Collection
Date [inclusive]:
1905-1937
Call Number:
0047
Extent:
1 linear foot
Language:
English
Abstract:
The papers of Louis Shotridge are one of the most extensive groups in the Arctic research collections of the University of Pennsylvania Museum Archives. Shotridge, a Tlingit Indian, was intermittently employed by the museum to make ethnographic collections of Northwest Coast materials between 1903 and 1912. The archives has papers concerning his original research, arranged topically, manuscripts for articles published in The Museum Journal, oral histories, Tlingit language notes, and general ethnographic notes on the Tlingit and other Northwest Coast groups.
Cite as:
[Item name]. Box [Box number]. Louis Shotridge collection. Penn Museum Archives. Accessed [Date accessed].
PDF Version:

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Summary Information

Repository:
University of Pennsylvania: Penn Museum Archives
Creator:
Booy, Theodoor Hendrik Nikolaas de, 1882-1919
Title:
Theodoor de Booy Sierra de Perija expedition records
Date [inclusive]:
1916-1919
Call Number:
1122
Extent:
0.13 linear foot (The collection consists of two folders of correspondence and linguistic material and two folders of photographs in an archival box. The lantern slide collection from the expedition is in the photographic section)
Language:
English
Abstract:
Theodoor deBooy, a native of the Netherlands, immigrated to the United States in 1906, becoming a citizen in 1916. Trained neither as an archaeologist nor anthropologist, he nevertheless traveled independently to the Bahamas in 1911 to study the Caicos group of islands and, in 1912, published his "Lucayan Remains on the Caicos Islands." From that time on, de Booy dedicated himself to the field of archaeology. The collection includes correspondence with George Byron Gordon, Director of the Penn Museum, a catalog of artifacts, photographs, a bibliography of the region, and lists of his lantern slides, how they should be colored, and how used in publication by the Museum.
Cite as:
[Item name]. Box [Box number]. Theodoor de Booy Sierra de Perija expedition records. Penn Museum Archives. Accessed [Date accessed].
PDF Version:

Return to Top »

Biography/History

Louis Situwuka Shotridge, a Tlingit indian of noble birth, was born in Klukwan, near Haines, Alaska in 1882. He is known for being an American art collector and ethnological assistant, an expert on the traditions of his people, the Tlingit nation of southeastern Alaska. His Tlingit name was Stoowukháa, which means "Astute One."

Louis atended the Mission School in Haines where he met is future wife, Florence Dennis. Florence was an accomplished weaver of baskets and displayed her technique at the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland, Oregon in 1905. Louis accompanied his wife to sell artifacts from Klukwan. He sold forty-nine items to George Byron Gordon of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and was hired by Gordon to collect more objects for the museum.

In 1912, Shotridge visited Philadelphia and met Frank Speck who introduced Shotridge to Canadian anthropologist Edward Sapir. Soon, Shotridge was providing essays, information and objects to Sapir also. A meeting with Franz Boas in 1914 in New York resulted in Shotridge's providing him with recordings of the Tlingit language and musicology. This led to Shotridge holding weekly round-table discussions with Boas and other anthropologists at Columbia University.

Shotridge was employed by the Penn Museum for seventeen years as an assistant curator. He was dismissed in 1932 at the height of the Museum's financial crisis.

Louis Shotridge participated in four expeditions, being co-director of the first with his wife, Florence: John Wanamaker Expedition I 1915-1919 John wanamaker Expedition II 1922-1927 Expedition August 1928-May 1929 Expedition 1930-1932

While each expedition included the collection of artifacts the first wanamaker expedition included trips to Northern Chilkoot and Chilkot regions to record Tlingit songs. during the second Wanamaker trip, Shotridge travelled to photograph abandoned and living Tlingit communities. During the third season Louis was an active member of the Alaska Native Brotherhood and helped organize the Grand Camp in Sitka in 1929. The trip was shortened due to the death of his wife and financial concerns at the musuem. He purchased only two objects on this trip, a Kaagwaantaan shark helmet and a wooden tray. Louis returned to install the Museum’s new American Wing in May of 1929. The fourth expedition was shortened due to the Depression and the termination of most museum employees including Shotridge.

Following his return to Sitka Shotridge made his living from fishing, doing odd jobs and selling the occasional artifact. In 1935, he took a job as a government stream guard. His responsibility was to prevent fishing in closed areas, and it was an unpopular duty among Native fishermen.

In 1937, Shotridge was found on the ground near his cabinet in Redoubt Bay, about 16 miles south of Sitka. He had a broken neck and had apparently lain there for several days before a local schoolteacher found him. He was taken to a hospital in Sitka where he died 10 days later. The coroner's jury concluded that Shotridge had fallen from the roof and ruled it an accident. while this is a generally accepted fact, there were rumors that his death was not accidental in the community

Biography/History

Theodoor de Booy, a native of Hellevoetsluis, the Netherlands, was the son of Vice-Admiral C.J.G. de Booy and Mary Hobson de Booy. Born in 1882 and educated at the Royal Naval Institute of Holland, de Booy immigrated to the United States in 1906 and gained his United States citizenship in 1916. De Booy married Elizabeth Hamilton Smith of Louisville, Kentucky and resided in New York City and Yonkers, New York.

De Booy made independent trips to the Bahamas in 1911 to study the Caicos group of islands and, in 1912, published his "Lucayan Remains on the Caicos Islands." From that time on, de Booy dedicated himself to the field of archaeology. De Booy joined The Heye Museum, now The Museum of the American Indian, initially as a field explorer for the West Indies. As a part of this work, de Booy traveled to Jamaica, the Bahamas, Santo Domingo, Cuba, the Island of Margarita, Venezuela, and Trinidad. De Booy accomplished some work for the University Museum while in Trinidad in 1915. By 1916, he had made three trips to Santo Domingo and Martinique.

Biographical information differs on whether de Booy severed his ties with The Heye Museum before his trip to Venezuela for the University Museum, however, in 1916 de Booy undertook a six week trip to the Sierra de Perija region of Venezuela, primarily an ethnographic and geographial investigation of the area and the Macao Indians, a Motilone group of natives. This mountanous region of Venezuela close to the border with Colombia was previously unknown and thought to be inhabited by a savage tribe that maintained the mountain regions free of white exploration and inhabitants.

De Booy traded for artifacts, gathered data on the native language, and took photographs of the people and the region. He communicated extensively with the Director of the University Museum, George Byron Gordon, and was frank in his hopes that his work would result in a full-time position with the University Museum. De Booy's "The People of the Mist" was published in the Museum Journal in 1918 as well as in The Geographical Review of the American Geographical Society. Upon his return, de Booy lectured about the trip, accompanied by a lantern slide presentation at the University Museum as well as in New York City. The position with the University Museum did not materialize and de Booy's letters reflect his disappointment and need for self promotion.

Theodoor de Booy was working on a book about the expedition at the time of his death, a victim of the influenza epidemic of 1919. His obituary in The New York Times revealed that de Booy contributed 4000 specimens to The Museum of the American Indian. He published monographs on the "pre-Columbian history of the Antilles" as well as "The Newly Acquired Virgin Lands of the United States and the British Virgin Islands." De Booy maintained membership in the American Anthropological Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and The Order of the Liberator of Venezuela.

Scope and Contents

The papers of Louis Shotridge are one of the most extensive groups in the Arctic research collections of the University of Pennsylvania Museum Archives. The Archives has papers concerning his original research, arranged topically, manuscripts for articles published in The Museum Journal, oral histories, Tlingit language notes, and general ethnographic notes on the Tlingit and other Northwest Coast groups. Several items in this section are of special interest. A 1919 published map is annotated with Shotridge’s itinerary during one of his travels seeking collections and information. Also a folder of original drawings, attributed to Shotridge, that illustrate house plans and artistic motifs. Finally, an indexed ethnographic card file fills one box. This file contains information on many aspects of native life in southeast Alaska, much of it unpublished. Certain titled sections of the file have no cards; otherwise, the file appears to be relatively complete, with only a few cards obviously missing. The only other noticeable gaps in the research material are a few incomplete article manuscripts.

Scope and Contents

Theodoor de Booy, a native of The Netherlands, immigrated to the United States in 1906 and became a citizen in 1916. He began his career as an independent explorer of the islands in The Bahamas in 1911 and 1912 and did some work for the University Museum before joining the Heye Museum, now The Museum of the American Indian, in New York as a field explorer. deBooy traveled extensively in the area of the West Indies for the Heye Museum but by 1918 he planned a trip to the Perija mountain region of Venezuela under the auspices of The American Geographic Society and the University Museum. de Booy hoped that his work would gain him a full-time position at the University Museum.

The Sierra de Perija mountains of Venezuela, close to the border with Colombia, were previously unexplored before deBooy's expedition. He spent six weeks investigating the ethnology of the Macao Indians, a Motilone tribe. de Booy traded for a collection of artifacts, recorded their language, and took numerous photographs of the people. The Museum Journal and the Geographical Review each published his account, "The People of the Mist" and deBooy was working on a book about his trip when he succombed to influenza in 1919.

The collection consists of four folders in an archival box and lantern slides in the photographic section. Two folders pertain to correspondence and de Booy's lists and vocabulary guides and linguistic data. Photographs are contained in the remaining two folders.

The correspondence is almost exclusively with George Byron Gordon, Director of the University Museum. The letters are in chronological order dating from 1/22/1916 to 1/27/1919, just a few weeks before de Booy's death. de Booy wrote several letters a week to the Museum. The collection includes three requests from Elizabeth de Booy for prompt payment of her husband's monthly salary in June and July, without specifying the year. Among the collection of correspondence are three letters to George Gordon from The Caribbean Petroleum Company that address the problem of getting a shipment of artifacts from this expedition to the United States. A single letter to George Gordon from George H. Pepper of The Museum of the American Indian, offers the University Museum the lantern slide collection of de Booy.

Along with the correspondence are several lists compiled by de Booy that accompanied his letters to Dr. Gordon. A four page "Catalog of Archaeological Specimens Collected at Pueblo Viejo" is not dated. A copy of this list is also in the folder. An informational "Bibliography of Regions East and West of Sierra de Perija" is nine pages of information about the region and the lore of the Motilone tribe. Six pages detail the "Color Scheme for Lantern Slides" with some small drawings and notes. A "List of the de Booy Lantern Slides" by site and signed by de Booy is four pages long. de Booy also sent a list of "Photographs to be used with Article on the Sierra de Perija."

Other written materials include five loose pages of vocabulary that are undated and in de Booy's hand and a small notebook dated 1/22 and labeled "Macoa (Motilan) Vocabulary, Sierra de Perija, Venezuela. Gathered by Theodoor de Booy, probably 1918." The words are organized alphabetically. The back cover of the notebook contains a note from J. Alden Mason, 10/2/56.

Two folders of photographs are placed in the photographic archives. The pictures are of various sizes and there are many duplicates. All have negative numbers on the reverse side. Many of the pictures have written notes by de Booy. The subjects are mostly Motilan men, women, and children engaged in everyday activities or at festival time. There are a few photographs of their lodgings and of the geography of the area.

Administrative Information

Publication Information

University of Pennsylvania: Penn Museum Archives

Publication Information

University of Pennsylvania: Penn Museum Archives,  November 2009

Finding Aid Author

Finding aid prepared by Eleanor M. King, December, 1982 and Alessandro Pezzati, October, 2007

Finding Aid Author

Finding aid prepared by Jody Rodgers

Revision Description

 3/1/12

Use Restrictions

Although many items from the archives are in the public domain, copyright may be retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law. The user is fully responsible for compliance with relevant copyright law.

Use Restrictions

Although many items from the archives are in the public domain, copyright may be retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law. The user is fully responsible for compliance with relevant copyright law.

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)
  • University of Pennsylvania. Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
Form/Genre(s)
  • Correspondence
  • Manuscripts for publication
  • Maps
  • Negatives (photographic)
  • Photographic prints
  • Photographs
Personal Name(s)
  • Gordon, G. B. (George Byron), 1870-1927
  • Sapir, Edward, 1889-1939
  • Shotridge, Louis
  • Speck, Frank G., 1881-1950
Subject(s)
  • Anthropological museums and collections
  • Ethnology
  • Ethnology--Indigenous peoples
  • Tlingit art
  • Tlingit Indians

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Controlled Access Headings

Form/Genre(s)
  • Correspondence
  • Photographs
Personal Name(s)
  • Booy, Theodoor Hendrik Nikolaas de, 1882-1919
  • Gordon, G. B. (George Byron), 1870-1927
Subject(s)
  • Anthropological linguistics
  • Anthropology
  • Ethnology
  • Ethnology--Indigenous peoples

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Bibliography

Mason, J. A., "Louis Shotridge" Expedition, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 11-16

Shotridge, Florence, "The Life of a Chilkat Indian Girl." The Museum Journal 4:3. 1913

Shotridge, Louis, "War Helmets and Clan Hats of the Tlingit Indians." The Museum Journal 10:1-2. 1919.

Shotridge, Louis, "A Visit to the Tsimshian Indians." The Museum Journal 10:1-2,3. 1919.

Shotridge, Louis, "The Bride of Tongass (A Study of the Tlingit Bridal Ceremony)." The Museum Journal 20:2. 1929.

Shotridge, Louis, "The Kaguanton Shark Helmet." The Museum Journal 20:3-4. 1929.

Shotridge, Louis, "How Ats-ha Followed the Hide of His Comrade to the Land of the Yek (A Tlingit Legend)." The Museum Journal 21:3-4. 1930.

Shotridge, Louis, "Keyt-Gooshe 'Killer Whale’s Dorsal Fin' (A Tlingit Dance Baton)." The Museum Journal 10:4. 1919.

Shotridge, Louis, "Ghost of Courageous Adventurer (A Tlingit Legend)." The Museum Journal 11:1. 1920.

Shotridge, Louis, "My Northland Revisited." The Museum Journal 8:2. 1917.

Shotridge, Louis, "Anthropological exploration of Alaska." Science, n.s., XLIX: 1273:491. 1919.

Shotridge, Louis, "Land Otter - Man (A Tlingit Myth)." The Museum Journal 13:1. 1922.

Shotridge, Louis, "The Emblems of the Tlingit Culture." The Museum Journal 19:4. 1928.

Shotridge, Louis, "Tlingit Woman’s Root Basket." The Museum Journal 12:3. 1921.

Shotridge, Louis and Florence Shotridge, "Indians of the Northwest." The Museum Journal 4:3. 1913.

Wanneh, Gewasa, "Situwaka Chief of the Chilkats" Society of American Indians, Quarterly Journal, vol. II, pp. 280-283

Collection Inventory

Correspondence, 1905-1937.

Series Description

Correspondence mostly with Museum Director George B. Gordon, but also to Director Horace H. F. Jayne and Jane McHugh, describing progress of fieldwork and collecting. Also included are expense reports and lists of artifacts purchased. Letters from Gordon to Shotridge until October, 1922 are in the Director’s Office letterpress copybooks; after that date, carbon copies of Museum letters are included in the Shotridge correspondence. Arranged chronologically.

Related Archival Materials note

See Gordon Letterpress books for correspondence from Gordon to Shotridge.

Box

Correspondence (1 of 10), 1905-1909.

1

Correspondence (2 of 10), 1911-1917.

1

Correspondence (3 of 10), 1918.

1

Correspondence (4 of 10), 1919-1923.

1

Correspondence (5 of 10), 1924.

1

Correspondence (6 of 10), 1925.

1

Correspondence (7 of 10), 1926-1927.

1

Correspondence (8 of 10), 1928-1929.

1

Correspondence (9 of 10), 1930-1931.

1

Correspondence (10 of 10), 1932-1937.

1

Financial Records, 1912-1932.

Scope and Contents note

Cancelled checks and vouchers for fieldwork and collecting expenses. Expense reports are found in the Correspondence Series. Arranged chronologically.

Box

Canceled Checks and Vouchers.

1

Curatorial, 1911-1930.

Scope and Contents note

Letters, memoranda, reports, and collection notes relating to miscellaneous curatorial duties performed by Shotridge in the American Section. Also included is work by Shotridge on Museum exhibitions. Arranged topically.

Box

Miscellaneous Correspondence.

1

Exhibit Labels.

1

Note on Root Basket.

1

Miscellaneous, including lists of collections.

1

North American Exhibition-1925 Room AA.

2

North American Exhibition-1925 Room BB-Alaska Eskimo.

2

Manuscripts, 1913-1933.

Scope and Contents note

Drafts of articles published by Shotridge in The Museum Journal, recounting Tlingit myths, expedition narratives, and descriptions and interpretations of artifacts. Also includes some unpublished material and public school lectures. Arranged chronologically.

Box

"Chilkat Dwelling House" and "Smoking or Food Preparing House" 1913.

1

"War Helmets and Clan Hats of the Tlingit Indians" 1919.

1

"The Ghost of Courageous Adventurer" 1920.

1

"Tlingit Woman's Root Basket" 1921.

1

"Land Otter-Man" 1922.

1

"The Emblems of the Tlingit Culture" ( Medoff) 1928.

1

"The Bride of Tongass" 1929.

1

"The Kaguanton Shark Helmet" 1929.

1

"How Ats-ha Followed the Hide of His Comrade to the Land of the Yek" [Fragment] 1930.

1

"Vengeance" 1933.

1

"The Vanishing Nobility of Alaska".

1

Public School Lectures— “First White Man”.

2

Public School Lectures -“Lantern Slides — The American Territory of Alaska — Its Peoples and Its History”.

2

Public School Lectures-“Alaska-The Country and Its People”.

2

Public School Lectures-“Moldy Head-Adventure of ‘Alive in Pond’ in the Salmon World”.

2

Research, 1914-1930.

Scope and Contents note

Includes one notebook of linguistic work prepared by Shotridge for and with Franz Boas, and a box of notes on the ethnography, language, history, genealogy, etc., of the Tlingit. Arranged topically.

Box

Notebook on Tlingit language and grammar, Shotridge work with Franz Boas; includes Tlingit songs and article for The Museum Journal.

1

Ethnographic notes (oversize from card file).

1

Ethnographic notes-Photocopies from the Alaska State Museum Ethnographic notes-Photocopies from the Alaska State Museum.

1

Ethnographic Notes with subject tabs.

2

Shotridge negative sleeves with identifications, 4x5 (nos. 14704–14950, mostly 14704-14792).

2

Shotridge negative sleeves with identifications, 5x7 (nos. 14744–14754).

2
Visual Materials.
Scope and Contents note

Approximately 500 photographs of people and places in Alaska and British Columbia taken by Shotridge in the field, as well as an annotated published map of Southeastern Alaska used by Shotridge, and drawings of houses and decorative motifs made by Shotridge for a Museum Journal article. Maps and drawings stored in oversize flat files, photographic collections stored by type with the negative, lantern slide, or print collections. Two additional drawings and a hand-drawn map are found in the Ethnographic Notes.

Drawer
Drawings of Tlingit houses and decorative motifs, mostly published in "Indians of the Northwest," The Museum Journal Vol IV No. 3 (Philadelphia: September, 1913). Attributed to Louis Shotridge.
P-36
Drawer

Chilkat blanket. .

P-36

Artistic motifs and portrait of Tlingit man. .

P-36

Artistic motifs. .

P-36

Fig. 68, Chilkat dwelling house, floor plan. .

P-36

Fig. 69, Chilkat dwelling house, framework. .

P-36

Fig. 70, Dwelling house, rear wall and framework. Fig. 71, Dwelling house, front wall and framework. .

P-36

Fig. 72, Manufacturing of boards and planks. Fig. 73, Cornice. Fig. 74, Making of corner-post. Unpublished figure, Cornice. .

P-36

Fig. 75, Dwelling house, exterior side wall. Fig. 76, Longitudinal section of dwelling house. .

P-36

Fig. 77, Food preparing house, floor plan. .

P-36

Fig. 78, Food preparing house, transverse section showing construction. Fig. 80, Food preparing house, front wall and framework. .

P-36

Fig. 79, Food preparing house, framework. .

P-36

Fig. 81, Food preparing house, longitudinal section. Fig. 82, Food preparing house, exterior side wall. .

P-36

Published map of Southeastern Alaska annotated with Shotridge’s itinerary. 8002. Alaska, Dixon Entrance to Cape St. Elias (Washington, DC: U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey).

M-58

Photographs (including prints, negatives, and lantern slides).

Scope and Contents note

A list of negatives in this collection is available by request.

Collection Inventory

Correspondence and linguistic data.

Photographs.