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Boolean Operators

  • Boolean operators may not be used in the Keyword search and field searches in the Basic Menu. AND is the default operator between multiple words entered in these search options.
  • Boolean operators may be used in the Keyword Expert search option in the Basic menu and in the Advanced Search Tab.
  • Operators may be in lower or upper case for all Advanced Search options.
  • If a Boolean operator is included in a search phrase, put the phrase in quotes or use the As a phrase specification in the guided Advanced Search.

  •    nickle and dime"
       body and soul"
       dazed and confused

  • Enclose search terms and operators in parentheses to specify the order in which they are to be interpreted. Information within parentheses is interpreted first, then information outside parentheses is interpreted next.

  •    (life or death) and poem*
  • If there are nested parentheses, the innermost parenthetical expressions are interpreted first, then the next, until the full search statement has been interpreted.

  •    ((song* or poem*) and (life or death)) and antholog*

  • A dash before a word acts as NOT.
* Boolean operator   *  Examples Retrieves...   *
* AND *  rodgers AND hammerstein
*  children AND poverty
AND Retrieves records containing both terms. *
* OR *  sixties OR 60s OR 1960s
*  labor OR labour
OR Retrieves records containing either one or both terms. *
* NOT *  caffeine NOT nicotine
*  caffeine -nicotine
NOT Excludes records containing the second term. *