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Pearl S. Buck and Richard J. Walsh papers

1890s-1972, 130 linear feet

01

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the Pearl S. Buck International. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the web.

Summary Information

Repository:
Pearl S. Buck International
Creator:
Buck, Pearl S. (Pearl Sydenstricker), 1892-1973
Title:
Pearl S. Buck and Richard J. Walsh papers
Date:
1890s-1972
Call Number:
01
Extent:
130 Linear feet
Language:
English
Language of Materials Note:
Some materials are in Chinese or in other languages.
Abstract:
Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973) was an American author, best known for her Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Good Earth and her humanitarian work including her advocacy for women's and minority groups' rights, her efforts to increase and promote mutual understanding between the people of China and America, and her activities with Asian and interracial adoption. Buck married her publisher, Richard J. Walsh (1886-1960), in 1935. The Pearl S. Buck and Richard J. Walsh papers, 1890s-1972, consist of materials that document the literary, philanthropic and business endeavors of Pearl S. Buck and her husband, publisher, and partner Richard J. Walsh spanning over sixty years, from about the 1890s to 1972. The papers represent home office files, the editorial files of  Asia magazine for the time period when Richard J. Walsh served as editor, and the files of the East and West Association, which was active from 1942 to 1951. There are also some papers of Chinese author Lin Yutang (1895-1976), a good friend of Buck and Walsh, who published several books through Walsh's publishing company.
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Biography/History

Pearl Comfort Sydenstricker was born on June 26, 1892 in Hillsboro, West Virginia. Her parents, Absalom Sydenstricker (1852-1931) and Caroline Stulting (1857-1921), were Southern Presbyterian missionaries stationed in China. Pearl was born while her parents were on furlough in the United States. They returned to China when Pearl was five months old. She would spend most of the first forty years of her life there.

In 1910, Pearl enrolled in Randolph-Macon Woman's College (now Randolph College) in Lynchburg, Virginia, graduating in 1914. She returned to China after learning that her mother was seriously ill. In 1917, she married John Lossing Buck, an agricultural economist.

Pearl had begun to publish stories and essays in the 1920s in magazines such as Woman's Home Companion,  The Chinese Recorder,  Asia, and  Atlantic Monthly. Her first novel,  East Wind, West Wind, was published by the John Day Company in 1930. John Day's publisher, Richard J. Walsh, would become Pearl's second husband in 1935 after both received divorces.

In 1931, John Day published Pearl's second novel, The Good Earth. This became the best-selling book of both 1931 and 1932, won the Pulitzer Prize and the Howells Medal in 1935, and would be adapted as a major MGM film in 1937. Other novels and books of non-fiction quickly followed. In 1938, Pearl won the Nobel Prize in literature, the first American woman to do so. By the time of her death in 1973, Pearl would publish over seventy books: novels, collections of stories, biographies and autobiographies, poetry, drama, children's literature, and translations from the Chinese. She also authored numerous short stores and articles in popular magazines.

In 1934, because of conditions in China, and to be closer to her daughter Carol, whom she had placed in an institution in Vineland, New Jersey, Pearl moved permanently to the United States. She bought an old farmhouse, Green Hills Farm, in Bucks County, Pennsylvania.

Pearl became active in promoting civil rights and women's rights. She published essays in both Crisis, the journal of the NAACP, and  Opportunity, the magazine of the Urban League; she was a trustee of Howard University for twenty years. She was also an advocate for birth control, the repeal of Chinese Exclusion laws, and the Equal Rights Amendment.

In 1942, Pearl and Richard founded the East and West Association, dedicated to cultural exchange and understanding between Asia and the West. In 1949, outraged that existing adoption services considered Asian and interracial children unadoptable, Pearl established Welcome House, the first international, interracial adoption agency. In 1964, to provide support for Amerasian children who were not eligible for adoption, Pearl also established the Pearl S. Buck Foundation (now called Pearl S. Buck International) which provided sponsorship funding for children in Asian countries.

Pearl Buck died in March, 1973, two months before her eighty-first birthday. She is buried at Green Hills Farm.

Scope and Contents

The collection of papers of Pearl S. Buck and her husband, publisher, and partner Richard J. Walsh document their literary, philanthropic and business endeavors spanning over sixty years, from about the 1890s to 1972. The papers represent home office files, the editorial files of Asia magazine for the time period when Richard J. Walsh served as editor, and the files of the East and West Association, which was active from 1942 to 1951. There are also some papers of Chinese author Lin Yutang (1895-1976), a good friend of Buck and Walsh, who published several books through Walsh's publishing company. An item-level inventory is available on-site.

Arrangement Note

The Pearl S. Buck and Richard J. Walsh papers are arranged into six record groups which preserve how the papers were originally filed and stored.

Record Group 1: Papers of Pearl S. Buck Series 1. Writings Series 2. Correspondence Series 3. Contracts Series 4. Scrapbooks

Record Group 2: Papers of Richard J. Walsh Series 1. Writings Series 2. Correspondence Series 3. Scrapbooks

Record Group 3: Financial and household records of Pearl S. Buck and Richard J. Walsh

Record Group 4: Records of Asia magazine Series 1. Magazine issues Series 2. Editorial correspondence Series 3. Manuscripts Series 4. Financial records

Record Group 5: Records of the East and West Association Series 1. Alphabetical files Series 2. Geographical files Series 3. International files Series 4. Administrative files Series 5. Financial records, ledgers, account books, and scrapbooks

Record Group 6: Papers of Lin Yutang

Administrative Information

Publication Information

Pearl S. Buck International

Finding Aid Author

Finding aid prepared by staff of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania's Hidden Collections Initiative for Pennsylvania Small Archival Repositories using data provided by Pearl S. Buck International

Sponsor

This preliminary finding aid was created as part of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania's Hidden Collections Initiative for Pennsylvania Small Archival Repositories. The HCI-PSAR project was made possible by a grant from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

Access Restrictions

Contact Pearl S. Buck International for information about accessing this collection.

Use Restrictions

Please note that it is the responsibility of the researcher to identify the copyright owner and to obtain permission before making use of this material in any way. Information on copyright can be obtained from the Library of Congress Copyright Office, http://www.copyright.gov. Duration of copyright depends on when an item was first copyrighted and the date of any renewals. See below for additional information on copyright relating to materials at Pearl S. Buck International.

Pearl S. Buck International does not hold copyright to materials in Record Groups 4 and 5, Records of Asia magazine and Records of East and West Association. Some materials, including textual materials and photographs found in this collection, may be copyrighted.

Pearl S. Buck International holds copyright to works written by Pearl S. Buck for the Pearl S. Buck Foundation and Welcome House, including writings for brochures and articles. Pearl S. Buck International also holds copyright to the following works: For Spacious Skies (1966);  Matthew, Mark, Luke and John (1967);  To My Daughters With Love (1967);  The New Year (1968);  The Good Deed (1969);  Three Daughters of Madame Liang (1969);  Mandala (1970);  China As I See It (1970);  Once Upon a Christmas (1972);  The Rainbow (1974);  East and West (1975);  Secrets of the Heart (1976);  The Lovers (1977);  The Woman Who Was Changed (1979).

Request to quote or reprint these materials must be obtained in writing from:

Pearl S. Buck International 520 Dublin Road Perkasie, PA 18944-3000 Phone: 215-249-0100

The Pearl S. Buck Family Trust retains copyright to all other published and unpublished works of Pearl S. Buck, including books, magazine articles, speeches, and published or unpublished manuscript materials, including privately held papers.

Request to quote or reprint these materials must be obtained in writing from:

Pearl S. Buck Family Trust Email: psbft@aol.com

Immediate Source of Acquisition Note

In 1966, Pearl Buck transferred ownership of Green Hills Farm to the Pearl S. Buck Foundation. In 1972 she wrote that "inasmuch as the house in Pennsylvania is being declared a national historic monument and insofar as it is my wish that my final resting place be there, be it hereby known that it is also my desire that the contents of the Bucks County house remain as nearly as possible exactly as they have been during my lifetime" [Aug. 14, 1972, PSB to Gale Raphael]. Green Hills Farm was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1974 and the house was open for tours.

Processing Information Note

These boxes of personal and business papers of Pearl S. Buck and Richard J. Walsh (who died in 1960) had been stored in numerous attics in the main house, cottage and barn. In 2005, through a grant from the William Penn Foundation, they were brought together, placed in acid-free archival boxes and moved into a new storage room in the International Headquarters Building.

Summary descriptive information on this collection was compiled in 2014-2016 as part of a project conducted by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania to make better known and more accessible the largely hidden collections of small, primarily volunteer run repositories in the Philadelphia area. The Hidden Collections Initiative for Pennsylvania Small Archival Repositories (HCI-PSAR) was funded by a grant from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

This is a preliminary finding aid. No physical processing, rehousing, reorganizing, or folder listing was accomplished during the HCI-PSAR project.

In some cases, more detailed inventories or finding aids may be available on-site at the repository where this collection is held; please contact Pearl S. Buck International directly for more information.

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Related Materials

Related Archival Materials Note

Pearl S. Buck International: Pearl S. Buck International photograph collection, circa 1860-2005.

Pearl S. Buck International: Pearl S. Buck letters to Anne K. Sun, 1942-1958, Accession 1977.1.

Pearl S. Buck International: Pearl S. Buck letters to Mary Carolyn Dobbs, 1951-1965, Accession 1999.1.

Pearl S. Buck International: "Through China's Gateway" film and booklet series, 1947, Accession 1986.1.

Papers of Pearl S. Buck, formerly housed at West Virginia Wesleyan College were transferred in October of 2014 to the West Virginia and Regional History Center of the West Virginia University Library to provide the best long term care for the collection and the highest possible level of visibility, scholarship, and access for research. Interested researchers should contact:

West Virginia and Regional History Center John A. Cuthbert, Director 1549 University Avenue Morgantown, WV 26506 Phone: 304-293-3536 Email: jcuthber@wvu.edu

Additional papers of Pearl Buck were conveyed by her to her children. Those papers include letters from famous people and personal and family letters. They are privately owned papers held by the Pearl S. Buck Family Trust. Researchers may apply for access by contacting:

Pearl S. Buck Family Trust Archives Email: psbft@aol.com

Some letters of friends and associates of Pearl S. Buck, especially those of college friends, are held by Pearl. S. Buck's alma mater, Randolph Macon Woman's College (now Randolph College). Researchers can check online inventories at http://faculty.randolphcollege.edu/fwebb/buck/collections.html, and should contact:

Randolph College Lipscomb Library 2500 Rivermont Avenue Lynchburg, Virginia 24503 Phone: 434-947-8133

Business papers relating to Pearl Buck's literary career and the John Day Company are held by Princeton University. These holdings include: Archives of John Day Company, Inc., 1926-1969, call number C0123, (online finding aid at http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/0c483j41k); David Lloyd Agency Records on Pearl S. Buck, 1928-1958 (bulk 1934-1952), call number C0060, (online finding aid at http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/6h440s47d); and Archives of Harold Ober Associates, 1913-1922 (bulk 1968-2002), call number C0129, (Pearl S. Buck's literary agents from 1957 to 1972, online inventory at http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/b5644r569). Interested researchers should contact:

Princeton University Library Department of Rare Books and Special Collections Manuscripts Division One Washington Road Princeton, New Jersey 08544-2098 Phone: 609-258-3184 Email: rbsc@princeton.edu Website: http://www.princeton.edu/~rbsc

Papers relating to Asia magazine and Richard J. Walsh's involvement with it are held by The Elmhirst Centre at Dartington Hall (Leonard K. Elmhirst: American papers) and Cornell University Library (Dorothy Whitney Straight Elmhirst Papers, Collection Number 3725, online inventory at http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/EAD/htmldocs/RMM03725.html). Interested researchers should contact:

Dartington Hall Archives The Elmhirst Centre, Dartington Hall Totnes, Devon TQ9 6EL United Kingdom Phone: 01803 847000

Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections Cornell University Library Ithaca, NY 14853 Phone: 607-255-3530

A discussion of the East and West Association can be found in Robert Shaffer. "Pearl S. Buck and the East and West Association: The Trajectory and Fate of 'Critical Internationalism,' 1940–1950." Peace and Change 28, no. 1 (January 2003): 1-36.

Other materials relating to Lin Yutang can be found at the Lin Yutang House in Taiwan and in the Lin Yutang Family Collection in the Department of Asian Art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Interested researchers should contact:

The Lin Yutang House 141, Section 2 Yangteh Avenue Taipei, Taiwan R.O.C. Website:http://www.linyutang.org.tw/english/

The Department of Asian Art The Metropolitan Museum of Art 1000 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10028 Phone: 212-535-7710

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)
  • East and West Association (U.S.)
  • Pearl S. Buck International
  • Welcome House (Adoption agency)
Geographic Name(s)
  • Bucks County (Pa.)
  • China
Personal Name(s)
  • Buck, Pearl S. (Pearl Sydenstricker), 1892-1973
  • Lin, Yutang, 1895-1976
  • Walsh, Richard J. (Richard John), 1886-1960
Subject(s)
  • Adoption agencies
  • Authors
  • Authors and publishers
  • Authors, Chinese
  • Intercountry adoption
  • Interracial adoption
  • Personality and culture--China
  • Publishers and publishing
  • United States--Relations--China
  • Women authors
  • Women Nobel Prize winners

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Collection Inventory

Record Group 1..  Papers of Pearl S. Buck, 1931-1972 (Bulk, 1939-1946) . 50 boxes.
Arrangement Note

The arrangement of the papers reflects the original filing system used by the professional staff who worked for Pearl Buck and Richard Walsh. An item-level inventory is available on-site.

This record group has been arranged into four series:

1. Writings of Pearl S. Buck: Original handwritten drafts or typescripts of articles, speeches and other writings of Pearl S. Buck

2. Correspondence: Arranged by year, then alphabetically by name of correspondent or organization

3. Contracts: Contracts for books, plays, movie scripts and foreign language rights to works by Pearl S. Buck

4. Scrapbooks: Scrapbooks presented to Pearl S. Buck

Conditions Governing Use Note

Most materials, including published and unpublished textual materials and photographs found in this record group, are copyrighted. For further information, see the Conditions Governing Use note for the collection. Please note that it is the responsibility of the researcher to identify the copyright owner and to obtain permission before making use of this material in any way. Information on copyright can be obtained from the Library of Congress Copyright Office, http://www.copyright.gov. Duration of copyright depends on when an item was first copyrighted and the date of any renewals.

Series 1..  Writings of Pearl S. Buck, circa 1934-1970. 2 boxes.

Scope and Contents Note

This series consists of original handwritten drafts or typescripts of articles, speeches and other writings of Pearl S. Buck.

Series 2..  Correspondence, 1931-1972. 44 boxes.

Scope and Contents Note

This series consists of original letters sent to Pearl S. Buck and carbon copies of her replies. The majority of correspondence was prepared by professional secretaries employed by Pearl S. Buck and Richard J. Walsh. Subjects include correspondence about Pearl S. Buck's literary works, speaking engagements, her interests in political, social and military topics, personal letters, and fan mail.

Correspondence is filed by year, and then alphabetically by the name of correspondent or organization. In many cases, in-letters and replies are stapled together. The original filing system, which is broken down alphabetically but includes several subject files, has been retained. Box 2 of the correspondence contains letters between Pearl S. Buck and her literary agent, David Lloyd, from 1939 regarding contracts, serial rights, foreign language translations, and proposals for new stories. Boxes 24 and 25, which contain correspondence relating to the East and West Association, 1945, consist principally of carbon copies of outgoing correspondence, with only a few incoming letters. Additional correspondence of Pearl S. Buck for the East and West Association is found in Record Group 5, Records of the East and West Association.

Series 3..  Contracts. 2 boxes.

Scope and Contents Note

This series consists of contracts for books, plays, movie scripts and foreign language rights to works by Pearl S. Buck. The materials are arranged alphabetically.

Series 4..  Scrapbooks, circa 1947-1966. 2 boxes.

Scope and Contents note

This series contains three scrapbooks presented to Pearl S. Buck.

Scrapbook 1. Photographic scrapbook of the Elizabeth Saunders Home in Oiso, Japan. The orphanage was founded in 1947 by Miki Sawada to care for and educate children of mixed race born to Japanese mothers. Many of the children were placed with adoptive families in the United States. The photographs were taken by a Japanese photographer, Koyo Kageyama and his son and daughter, Masahide and Kazuyo Kageyama, between 1947 and 1957. An exhibition of their work was held at a gallery in Japan. This scrapbook includes the photographs from that exhibition. There are also typed reminiscences by Miki Sawada with the scrapbook.

Scrapbook 2. "Memory of Korea" photographic scrapbook. Title page reads, "From 1st Nov. '60 to 10 Nov. '60 invited by Mr. Kim Myung Yup, president of Yowon Co., Photographed by Kim Kyu Heuk." The scrapbook documents Pearl S. Buck's visit to Korea. During her stay, she visited orphanages in Pusan, and an orphanage run by Henry Holt in Seoul. Miki Sawada also appears in some of the photographs.

Scrapbook 3. Scrapbook of the Myung-Sung Child Care Centers, Pu Pyung (Ascom City), Korea. The photographic scrapbook compiled by Seung-Kyu Kim, circa 1966, depicts scenes of the orphanage, baseball team, folk dancing programs, and American soldiers visiting the children.

Record Group 2..  Papers of Richard J. Walsh, 1890s-1953 (bulk 1925-1953). 34 boxes.
Biographical/Historical Note

Richard John Walsh was born November 20, 1886, in Lyons, Kansas, the oldest child of Joseph Herbert Walsh and Elizabeth Haslam. The family moved back to Massachusetts when Richard Walsh was 2 years old. He had a brother, Albert H. Walsh and a sister Marion Walsh (Pierce).

Richard J. Walsh attended Harvard University and graduated in the class of 1907. He was active as a writer for the Harvard Lampoon and was elected to the Signet Society.

From 1907 to 1909, he was a reporter and special writer for the Boston Herald. Other positions he held included assistant secretary of the Boston Chamber of Commerce (1909-1912), and promotion manager of Curtis Publishing Company (1912-1916). During World War I, he was a member of the staff of the U.S. Food Administration (1917-1918). He worked as an advertising writer (1917-1922); editor of  Collier’s Weekly (1922-1924), and associate editor of  Judge magazine (1927-1933).

In 1926, he founded the John Day Publishing Company with partners Cleland Austin, Trell Yocum and Guy Holt. The company remained in existence until 1969. Richard Walsh was editor of Asia magazine from 1933 on, and, with Pearl S. Buck, purchased the journal from its publishers, Leonard and Dorothy Elmhirst, in 1941. He was active in international relief work, including serving as chair of the Citizens Committee to Repeal Chinese Exclusion and United China Relief.

With his first wife, Ruby Hopkins Abbott, he had three children: Natalie Abbott Walsh, b. c. 1912 (nicknamed "Nats", m. Robert Coltman); Richard John Walsh Jr., b. c.1915; and Elizabeth Walsh, b. c. 1921 (nicknamed "Betty," m. Harry Churchill).

On June 11, 1935, he divorced Ruby Walsh and married Pearl S. Buck in Reno, Nevada. In 1953, he was incapacitated by a stroke, and died 1960.

Richard J. Walsh is the author of Selling Forces (1913);  Kidd: A Moral Opuscule: The Verse (1922);  The Burning Shame of America: An Outline Against Nicotine (1924);  The Voice of the Murderer (1926, with Wilder Goodwin under the pen name Goodwin Walsh);  The Making of Buffalo Bill: A Study in Heroics (1928);  A Biographic Sketch of Pearl S. Buck (1936);  The Adventures of Marco Polo (1948); and  Adventures and Discoveries of Marco Polo (1953).

He was active in the Harvard Club, the Dutch Treat Club (N.Y.), the Players Club (N.Y.), and the Century Club.

Scope and Contents Note

The papers consist of original letters sent to Richard J. Walsh and carbon copies of his replies. Subjects include editorial work for Judge,  Woman’s Home Companion, and the John Day Company; Harvard alumni activities; and investments, loans and other business matters. Walsh was active in committee work for a number of political and philanthropic causes, including United China Relief, INDUSCO (Committee in Aid of Chinese Industrial Cooperatives), and Committee for the Repeal of Chinese Exclusion Laws. An item-level inventory is available on-site.

The arrangement of the papers reflects the original filing system used by the professional staff who worked for Pearl Buck and Richard Walsh. Richard J. Walsh’s papers were kept as much as possible in their original filing order. Correspondence was filed by year, then alphabetically. Writings and other loose papers were kept by subject.

Arrangement Note

The papers are arranged in three series:

1. Writings of Richard J. Walsh: college writings, typescripts of articles, editorial writings and speeches, arranged alphabetically by title.

2. Correspondence: Arranged by year, then alphabetically by name of correspondent. Box 23 of the correspondence (Citizens Committee for the Repeal of Chinese Exclusion, 1943) contains carbon copies and original correspondence of the committee and requests for copies of the pamphlet, "Our Chinese Wall." Richard J. Walsh served as chairman of this committee.

3. Scrapbooks

Series 1..  Writings of Richard J. Walsh, 1890s-1953. 4 boxes.

Subseries A..  Family papers and college writings, 1890s-1907.

Subseries B..  Writings of Richard J. Walsh, A-Z, circa 1919-1953.

Subseries C..  Diaries of Richard J. Walsh, 1921, 1928-1930, 1934.

Series 2..  Correspondence, 1920-1951. 28 boxes.

Series 3..  Scrapbooks and account books of Richard J. Walsh, 1920-1942. 2 boxes.

Scope and Contents Note

This series includes four scrapbooks and two account/cash books. One box of oversized materials is also included in this series.

1. Scrapbook of editorial columns of Richard J. Walsh, 1920–1931 [Includes editorials for Women's Home Companion, 1925–1931, and for other publications including  The Nation and  Collier's, 1920–1924]

2. China Emergency Relief Committee, 1940–42 [Account book of cash disbursements, 1940–1942 and analysis of mail solicitation]

3. John Day Co. Publicity Scrapbook, 1928 [book reviews]

4. John Day Co. Publicity Scrapbook, 1928 [book reviews]

5. John Day Co. Publicity Scrapbook, 1933 [includes reviews of Pearl S. Buck's The First Wife]

6. China Emergency Relief Committee, Cash receipt book, 1940–1942 [Cash receipts and donations in kind, 1940–1942]

7. Oversize Materials [1 box; oversized materials including advertising copy for Curtis Publishing Company, Kiddie Kars, and Kauffmann's department store, and a photostatic map of "The Itineraries of Marco Polo"]

Record Group 3..  Financial and household records of Pearl S. Buck and Richard J. Walsh, 1933-1968. 8 boxes.
Scope and Contents Note

This record group consists of bills, receipts, correspondence, tax returns and other documents relating to household and business expenses of Pearl S. Buck and Richard J. Walsh for Green Hills Farm (Bucks County, Pennsylvania) and their apartment in New York City.

The files are arranged by year, and then alphabetically by subject. An item-level inventory is available on-site.

Record Group 4..  Records of Asia magazine, 1917-1947. 38 boxes.
Biographical/Historical Note

Asia magazine was established and financed in 1917 by Willard D. Straight and his wife, Dorothy Payne Whitney Straight, in order to promote travel and business interests in the Far East. The Straights were also publishers of the  New Republic magazine.

Straight had been, since 1912, president of the American Asiatic Association, which had published the Journal of the American Asiatic Association since 1898. It was published by Louis D. Froelick and edited by John Foord. Those men continued on the editorial and publishing staff of  Asia magazine.

Willard Straight died of influenza in 1918. His widow, Dorothy Straight, continued publication of Asia magazine. She married Leonard K. Elmhirst in 1925, and together they continued in publishing both  Asia and  New Republic.

The staff of Asia magazine consisted of the editor, Louis D. Froelick, and associate editors Gertrude Emerson and Marietta Neff. Elsie Weil, who remained as managing editor of  Asia for many years, joined the staff about 1920.

In October 1933, Richard J. Walsh was named editor. Beginning with the first issue of 1934, he began to change the focus of the magazine away from travel to one dedicated to "bring forth the deeper currents of Asiatic life and thought and to present them in a manner that will appeal to the reader with serious interest in the Orient and its relation to the Occident."

The magazine changed its focus to more urgent and controversial issues, including politics and war news. The content also included more fiction by both Eastern and Western authors. Regular contributors included William Ernest Hocking, Hu Shih, Owen Lattimore, Lin Yutang, Jawaharlal Nehru, Nathaniel Peffer, Edgar Snow, Nym Wales, and Theodore H. White. A book review column titled "Asia Book Shelf" by Pearl S. Buck was added. Advisory editors in several Asian countries were hired to secure articles from local writers. Gertrude Emerson Sen became associate editor in India, and H.J. Timperley was named associate editor in China.

In 1941, Richard J. Walsh and Pearl S. Buck purchased the magazine from the Elmhirsts and took over as the new owners and publishers. They reorganized and continued the magazine, changing its name to Asia and the Americas in November 1942.

In 1947 Asia and the Americas merged with  Free World (October 1941–December 1946) and  Inter-American (May 1942– November 1946) to form a new publication under the title  United Nations World.

Arrangement Note

The records of Asia magazine are arranged in four series:

1. Magazine issues (loose and bound copies)

2. Editorial correspondence (includes correspondence with authors, writers submitting manuscripts for consideration, and internal memos). Box 2 in this series contains original photographs, some of which were purchased but not published.

3. Editorial files/manuscripts (marked up typescripts, galley and page proofs for each monthly issue)

4. Financial records (account books and vouchers)

An item-level inventory is available on-site.

Immediate Source of Acquisition Note

The editorial files of Asia were shipped to Green Hills Farm, the country home of Richard J. Walsh and Pearl S. Buck, in Dublin, Pennsylvania. They were stored at Green Hills Farm in shipping transfer boxes and were donated to the Pearl S. Buck Foundation, along with her house and its contents, in 1972. Pearl S. Buck International succeeded the Foundation as a merger of PSBF and Welcome House.

Conditions Governing Use Note

Pearl S. Buck International does not hold copyright to materials in this record group. Some materials, including textual materials and photographs found in this collection, may be copyrighted. For further information, see the Conditions Governing Use note for the collection. Please note that it is the responsibility of the researcher to identify the copyright owner and to obtain permission before making use of this material in any way. Information on copyright can be obtained from the Library of Congress Copyright Office, http://www.copyright.gov.

Series 1..  Asia magazine issues, 1917-1946. 9 boxes.

Scope and Contents Note

Loose copies of the magazine include issues from 1917 to 1946 (incomplete). Bound volumes include issues from 1917 to 1941 (incomplete).

Series 2..  Asia editorial correspondence, circa 1934-1945. 15 boxes.

Series 3..  Asia manuscripts, 1929-1947. 7 boxes.

Scope and Contents Note

This series consists of marked up typescripts, galley and page proofs for each monthly issue of the magazine, 1939-1944. Box 7 contains Asia manuscripts that were "killed" (not selected for publication), 1929-1947.

Series 4..  Financial records of Asia magazine, 1922-1946. 7 boxes.

Scope and Contents Note

This series consists of ledger books and vouchers for the publication of Asia magazine. There are also scrapbooks with articles, press and publicity clippings, and direct mail marketing materials. One box of oversized materials is also included in this series.

Subseries A..  Ledger books, 1922-1941.

Advertising schedule [Ledger book of advertisers for each issue of the magazine.], 1923-1936.

Account book of expenditures, 1922 November-1924 August.

Account book of expenditures, 1929 July-1932 October.

Manuscripts and photos received [Notebook listing materials received, broken down alphabetically by name of author then by date.], 1938-1941.

Subseries B..  Vouchers, 1935-1939.

Asia magazine vouchers [Loose payment vouchers, arranged alphabetically], 1935-1939.

Subseries C..  Scrapbooks, 1934-1946.

Index of authors and articles [binder], 1934-1946.

Asia magazine monthly news summary page [Articles by Richard J. Walsh], 1942 April–1945 March.

Asia magazine monthly news summary page [Articles by Richard J. Walsh], 1945 April-1946 December.

Press, publicity and clippings related to books published by Asia Press (3 binder volumes).

Direct mail marketing (2 scrapbooks), 1941-1943.

Subseries D..  Oversized items, circa 1933-1938.

Cash disbursements, 1933-1938.

Oversized photos [photos of India, original pen and ink drawings of a Chinese garden, gouache of Indian men with ox, flags of the world, pen and ink drawings of fish, photos of India], before 1934.

Record Group 5..  Records of the East and West Association, 1941–1951 (bulk 1941–1947).
Biographical/Historical Note

The East and West Association was launched in 1941 by Pearl S. Buck and Richard J. Walsh. They helped finance the Association through personal loans and a membership campaign. The Association was incorporated in New York as a nonprofit educational organization on June 30, 1941.

Pearl Buck took a very active role as President of the Association, and assembled a professional staff to carry out an ambitious national program. Mildred Hughes was hired in August 1941 as the first director of the Association. The first formal meeting announcing plans of the East and West Association was a dinner held in Washington, D.C. on February 12, 1942, attended by representatives of Asian countries, government officials and educators.

Its mission was to be "an educational organization devoted to furthering mutual knowledge and understanding between peoples." Its goals, as stated in its 1942 brochure, were "to bring about, through these times of war and through the peace that is to follow, a better mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of Asia and Australasia and their allies."

The work of the East and West Association was done by national and local committees, including the Intercultural Committee headed by Lin Yutang, the General Education Committee under Tyler Dennett, the Committee on Comparative Literature under Arthur E. Christy, the Writer's Committee under Vincent Sheean, the Race Relations Committee under Ruth Benedict, the Artists Committee under Martha Sawyers, the Committee on Motion Pictures under Mrs. Arretus F. Burt, and the Washington Advisory Committee on Cultural Relations under Grace Yaukey.

The East and West Association produced books and pamphlets, reading lists, filmstrips, and sound recordings about Asian cultures. Public information was disseminated through radio broadcasts, lecture series, forums, public meetings, discussion groups and cultural performances.

The East and West Association closed in 1951.

Arrangement Note

The files of the East and West Association were kept as much as possible in their original filing order. Numerous moves over the years have made a logical order for some papers difficult to ascertain. Whenever possible, the original folder titles have been retained. An item-level inventory is available on-site. This record group contains 45 boxes and 4 volumes (scrapbooks).

Papers were originally kept in four series:

1. Alphabetical files: General correspondence, including correspondence with national organizations and key people, and all correspondence that did not relate to activities in state or local areas. This series consists of general correspondence filed by last name or name of organization.

2. Geographical files: Working files, divided by state, relating to interest and activities at the local level. This series consists of correspondence with the state and local chapters of the Association, including plans for the organization, China Clubs, lectures, and publicity. It is organized alphabetically by state.

3. International files: Correspondence with individuals and organizations abroad. This series consists of printed bibliographies and pamphlets on different countries, as well as correspondence organized alphabetically by country related to books and pamphlets. Most of the correspondence dates from 1942 to 1943. Later correspondence on the same subjects was apparently filed in the East and West Administrative files (Series 4).

4. Administrative files: Subject files organized alphabetically concerning the mechanics of the organization, departmental activities, plans, programs, finances.

5. Financial records, ledgers, account books, and scrapbooks: Membership files, contribution receipts, financial ledgers, voucher books, check registers, four scrapbooks with news releases, publicity materials, photographs, materials from direct mail campaigns, and samples of East and West Association publications and bibliographies.

The arrangement of the files is described in a memo from Florence Rose dated March 22, 1945, "Central Correspondence Files" (original in Record Group 5. Records of the East and West Association, Series 1. Alphabetical files, Box 3).

Immediate Source of Acquisition Note

After the East and West Association was closed in 1951, the office files were shipped to Green Hills Farm, Pearl Buck's house near Dublin, Pennsylvania. They were stored at Green Hills Farm in shipping transfer boxes and were donated to the Pearl S. Buck Foundation, along with her house and its contents, in 1972. Pearl S. Buck International succeeded the foundation as a merger of PSBF and Welcome House.

Conditions Governing Use Note

Pearl S. Buck International does not hold copyright to materials in this record group. Some materials, including textual materials and photographs found in this collection, may be copyrighted. For further information, see the Conditions Governing Use note for the collection. Please note that it is the responsibility of the researcher to identify the copyright owner and to obtain permission before making use of this material in any way. Information on copyright can be obtained from the Library of Congress Copyright Office, http://www.copyright.gov.

Series 1..  Alphabetical files.

Series 2..  Geographical files.

Series 3..  International files.

Series 4..  Administrative files.

Series 5..  Financial records, ledgers, account books, and scrapbooks.

Record Group 6..  Papers of Lin Yutang, 1933-1947. 3 boxes.
Biographical/Historical Note

Lin Yutang was a Chinese author, teacher, inventor, and philosopher born on October 10, 1895, in the town of Banzai, Pinghe Zhangzhou, Fujian province, China. (Zhangzhou was formerly known as Changchow.) He was the son of Chi-seng, a minister, and Sunmeng (Yang) Lin. He married Liao Tsui-feng (known as Hong) on July 9, 1919. They had three daughters: Lin Feng-ju (1923-1971, also known as Adet), Lin Taiyi (1926-2003, also known as Anor Lin), and Lin Hsiang-ju (born 1931, known as MeiMei in childhood). All three daughters became authors. Lin Taiyi was also the editor of Reader's Digest from 1965 to 1988, and Lin Hsiang-ju co-authored Chinese cookbooks with her mother and worked as a biochemist at a hospital in Hong Kong. Yutang died on March 26, 1976 and is buried at his home in Taipei, Taiwan.

Yutang received a B.A. from St. John's College (Shanghai) in 1916, an M.A. from Harvard University 1920; and a Ph.D. from the University of Leipzig in 1923. In addition to writing several books that became popular in the United States, Yutang compiled and translated into English several classic Chinese texts, and also compiled Chinese-English dictionary in 1972. In 1935, Richard Walsh published Yutang's first book in English. His third book, The Importance of Living (1937), stayed at the top of the  New York Times Best Seller List for fifty-two weeks. Like Pearl S. Buck, Yutang desired to bridge the cultural gap between the East and West, and he is considered by many to be one of the most influential interpreters of Chinese culture for the West during the early and mid-twentieth century. He was involved with the East and West Association and wrote articles for  Asia magazine. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1940 and 1950. Yutang was also an inventor. In the 1940s, he invented the Mingkwai "Clear and Quick" Chinese-language typewriter, after many years of people doubting whether or not a Chinese language typewriter could be made.

Throughout his career, Yutang worked for Peking National University, Peking, China (now Beijing, China) as a professor of English philology, 1923–26; National Amoy University, Amoy, Fujian, China (now Xiamen University in Xiamen, China), as a professor of English and dean of the College of Arts, 1926–27; and the Revolutionary Government of China, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in Wuhan, China as secretary, 1927. He served as a research fellow in philology and English editor at Academia Sinica, 1930–35; head of arts and letters division for UNESCO, in Paris, France, 1948–49; and chancellor at Nanyang University, Singapore (merged with the University of Singapore in 1980 to form the National University of Singapore), 1954–55. In the late 1950s, Yutang moved back to the United States, where he had lived off and on since his first trip in 1936 at the invitation of Pearl S. Buck.

Scope and Contents Note

This record group consists of correspondence between Lin Yutang, Richard J. Walsh, and Pearl S. Buck from 1933 until 1947. The papers are organized chronologically within folders. The bulk of the collection consists of editorial correspondence concerning Lin's books published by the John Day Company and articles for Asia magazine. There are also some personal letters from Lin Yutang and his wife and daughters to Pearl S. Buck and Richard J. Walsh, as well as photographs and ephemera. Topics discussed in the letters relate to Yutang's third book,  The Importance of Living, the Second Sino-Japanese War, Buck and Walsh's trip to Sweden for the Nobel Prize, the Mingkwai "Clear and Quick" Chinese-language typewriter (invented by Yutang), Chinese relief efforts, World War II and Japanese internment camps, the East and West Association, and other subjects. An item-level inventory is available on-site.

The papers were originally part of the editorial files of Asia magazine and the John Day Company, but were removed from those files in the 1940s by Richard Walsh in order to compile a volume of letters of Lin Yutang for publication. Notes indicate that in 1948 Richard J. Walsh began work on a volume of the letters of Lin Yutang, tentatively entitled "Letters of an Author to His Publisher and Others." The book apparently never got beyond the planning stage and the correspondence remained in a file box.