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R. Norris Williams collection of World War I material

Ms. Coll. 956

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held at the University of Pennsylvania. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the web.

Summary Information

University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts
Williams, Richard Norris, II, 1891-1968
R. Norris Williams collection of World War I material
Date [inclusive]:
Call Number:
Ms. Coll. 956
1.7 linear feet (5 boxes)
Language Note:
English, French and German.
Language Note:
The bulk of this collection is in English, with material in French and German.
Richard Norris Williams 2nd (1891-1968) served in the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I and was awarded the Croix de Guerre and the Légion d’Honneur. Later he became the President of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. His collection, dating from 1914 to 1968, documents his personal experience in the War as well as a broad view of the entire conflict through collected letters, diary entries, clippings, newspapers, leaflets, photographs and memorabilia.
Cite as:
, Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts, University of Pennsylvania
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Richard Norris Williams, II (1891-1968) served in the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I and was awarded the Croix de Guerre and the Légion d’Honneur. A descendant of Benjamin Franklin and Bishop White, Williams was born in 1891 to American parents in Switzerland. In 1912, Williams and his father were traveling to the United States on the Titanic, when during the sinking, Norris dove into the water, swam towards a half-submerged inflatable raft that floated off the ship as it sank, and stayed afloat until the  Carpathia rescued the survivors. In the five and a half years between the  Titanic disaster and America's entry into the War, Williams received a degree from Harvard, achieved international tennis fame as the reigning U.S. champion, and began an investment banking career.

Shortly after President Woodrow Wilson's 1917 Declaration of War, he volunteered for the U.S. Army. After a brief stint as an artillery officer, Williams came to the Army's notice because of his fluency in German and French and was ordered to the French Staff School at Senlis as an instructor in English. When close artillery fire necessitated the school's closing, he became Aide-de-Camp to General James G. Harbord, Commander of the Marine Brigade, Second Division, and later Commander of Services of Supply. As a member of the General Headquarters staff, Williams had the opportunity personally to observe the major directors of the war in action. He knew Pershing, Pétain, and, after the Armistice, Secretary of War Newton Baker.

He had a propensity for participating in the great events of history: not only had he survived the Titanic's sinking, he also watched the first bombing of Paris by air, participated in the battle of Belleau Wood (part of the Chateau Thierry campaign, the most important American engagement of the war), and worked at staff headquarters during the peace negotiations. For his dependable and often courageous action, he received the Croix de Guerre and the Légion d'Honneur. Still in Europe in February of 1919, with most of the American army, he won the singles and doubles championships at the A.E.F. tennis competition in Cannes. Williams seldom spoke of the extraordinary events of his life. Often heroic, he minimized his own heroism; even in his personal memoirs of the Great War, a reader finds only a lively and humorous account of events. He met those events with a sense of quiet confidence. He had an ability to respond quickly and appropriately to situations as they arose, as effective on the battlefield as he had been on the tennis court.

Both the general awareness of the terrible impact of the War, which he clearly shared, and Williams' own encounters with history -- his Titanic experience, his tennis fame -- must have prepared him to appreciate the War's historical significance. As his later career was to demonstrate, he had a historian's sensibility. Even in battle, he remembered to collect bits and pieces of history: aerial reconnaissance photographs; outdated instructions from French artillery positions; and the maps he "souveniered," used, and then saved.

After the war, Williams returned to the investment banking profession he had left. In the 1920s, when lawn tennis remained truly an amateur's game and not a profession, an investment banker could still enter the competition for, and win, the Wimbledon doubles title, as Williams did. In the 1930s, with increased free time on his hands, Williams returned to his War memories and began seriously to put his World War I Collection together. During World War II, as a trustee of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, he became his Active Director, replacing the incumbent who had gone to fight overseas. He remained Director of the Historical Society until shortly before his death in 1968.

The entirety of the above biographical note is taken from "An Exhibition celebrating the R. Norris Williams World War I Collection," by Elizabeth A. Mosimann. This exhibition was on view from November 14, 1988 to January 6, 1989 in the Kamin Gallery of the Van Pelt Library at the University of Pennsylvania.

Scope and Contents

This collection not only documents the war-time experiences of R. Norris Williams, but also includes materials he collected while in France and afterwards, as well as material generated during the process of developing this collection. In addition to the material contained within this collection, Williams collected a valuable group of published books, many of which contained the personal narratives of soldiers and military leaders involved in World War I; a topic which remained a focus of interest to Williams throughout his life.

This collection is arranged in two series: the first series includes World War I documents and the second contains material R. Norris William created during the process of developing his World War I collection. In Series I. World War I documents, researchers will find correspondence, diaries, official documents, photographs, artwork, memorabilia, booklets, and leaflets which were created during the conflict. Of particular interest are R. Norris Williams' own diaries and photograph album which document his experiences from April 1917 to May 1919. Because the original diary was in terrible condition, Williams transcribed it, but in a note at the beginning of the first volume, states, "in doing so I have not changed anything at all. It will be noted that some parts are in the present tense, others in the past tense, depending on when it was written at the time. Even that I have not changed" (box 1, folder 42). In addition to Williams's written memories, the diary includes photocopies of newspaper clippings, photographs, letters, telegrams, and illustrations. Along with the diary, the photograph album, in which many of the photographs are accompanied by captions, provides an excellent picture of Williams' personal experience in the war, from the time of Wilson's proclamation of war, to his return to the United States. This series also contains booklets and leaflets, both civilian and military; and most notably, a large number which were created to fight conscription in Great Britain. Finally, there are a few items that document the aftermath of the war, including speeches and memorials for generals, soldiers, and battles; and correspondence regarding British war debt.

The second series, R. Norris Williams material on the creation of his World War I collection, includes correspondence, clippings, and notes which document the efforts made by Williams to collect material, and particularly books, relating to the conflict. Much of this material includes non-original material such as clippings from bookseller's catalogues, newspapers, and magazines, and obituaries. However, there are several very substantive items, including letters from Thomas Buffum (box 3, folder 10) and Harold B. Willis (box 3, folder 60) in which they describe their experiences as prisoners of war; correspondence with Horst von der Goltz regarding his letter which was published in Saturday Evening Post; and correspondence with General James G. Harbord, who was writing a book on his own experiences in World War I and with whom Norris developed a firm friendship. Also of great interest are Williams's own research and notes on understanding World War I, in particular his hand-drawn maps and handwritten chronologies of events surrounding the entire conflict (box 2, folder 26) and the battle of the Marne (box 2, folder 25).

In order to fully appreciate Williams's efforts to fully document World War I, researchers should also consult books collected by Williams in Franklin: Penn Libraries Catalog and Print Collection 12: World War I Printed Media and Art Collection.

Administrative Information

Publication Information

University of Pennsylvania: Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts,  2014 February 25

Finding Aid Author

Finding aid prepared by Aleth Tisseau des Escotais

Access Restrictions

This collection is open for research use.

Use Restrictions

Copyright restrictions may exist. For most library holdings, the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania do not hold copyright. It is the responsibility of the requester to seek permission from the holder of the copyright to reproduce material from the Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts.

Source of Acquisition

Gift of Sue Williams, wife of R. Norris Williams circa 1987.

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Related Materials

Separated Materials note

The original gift included books and other printed material in addition to Williams' archival material. All printed material was separated and catalogued independently of the archival collection. Researchers will find books collected by Williams in Franklin: Penn Libraries Catalog. Printed material can be found in Print Collection 12: World War I Printed Media and Art Collection.

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Controlled Access Headings

  • Clippings (information artifacts)
  • Correspondence
  • Diaries
  • Leaflets (printed works)
  • Newspapers
  • Photographs
Personal Name(s)
  • Harbord, James G. (James Guthrie), 1866-1947
  • Draft
  • Military
  • Soldiers
  • World War, 1914-1918
  • World War, 1914-1918--France
  • World War, 1914-1918--Great Britain
  • World War, 1914-1918--Propaganda
  • World War, 1914-1918--United States

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Collection Inventory

Series I. World War I documents, 1914-1919.

a. World War I correspondence, diaries, official documents, photographs, artwork, and memorabilia.

Box Folder

1st Army, AEF, comic bulletin, "Summary of Unintelligence", 1918 November 10.

1 1

1st U.S. Engineers, programme from "Die Wacht am Rhein," a musical comedy in two acts and four scenes, circa 1917-1918.

1 2

9th Scottish Division, three dispatches regarding the end of the war, 1918 November 11.

1 3

Ambulance and Dressing Station, orders at or near Chateau Thierry and photograph album, 1918 April-September .

1 4

American YMCA, programme for production, history and tour brochures of Bordeaux, and Mother's Day booklet for AEF, circa 1917-1918.

1 5

Bairnsfather, Bruce, reproduction of a cartoon, "T'aint often I get's a chance o'readin' a paper Bert, so stop makin a noise with that tin will yer?", circa 1914-1918.

1 6

Baker, Newton D., travel order, 1918 September 8.

1 7

Barbusse, Henri, two citations recognizing Barbusse's bravery (printed) and two letters to "Friend", 1915, 1918, undated.

1 8

British Army and Navy Leave Club, brochure listing sightseeing opportunities, entertainment options, useful addresses, churches, recommended hotels, and "'Don'ts' Worth Remembering", circa 1914-1918.

1 9

British Expeditionary Force, souvenir programme of "The 100th performance of the famous 'A.B.C.'s'", 1916 February 26.

1 10

Butler, Alban, ink drawing, "The shirt hunt", 1918.

1 11

Camp de Zossen, songs and programmes for productions and L'Echo, journal by the prisoners of Camp de Zossen (German prisoner of war camp holding French prisoners), circa 1914-1915.

1 12

Camp d'Hammelburg, periodical, L'Exile, Numero 23, 1917 January 28.

1 13

Cavell, Edith, letter to a Belgian advocate; correspondence between H. Stirling T. Gahan, Hugh Gibson, Sir Edward Grey, M. Kirschen, Baron von der Lancken, G. de Leval, Mr. Page, and Brand Whitlock respecting the execution of Miss Cavell at Brussels (printed); and biographical sketch, 1915.

1 14

Clemenceau, Georges, excerpt from a message to the Americans, undated.

1 15

Dugan, Hugh Cosgrain and Herman Whitmore (prisoners of war), letter to James A. Hawes, 1918 June 21.

1 16

Foch, Ferdinand, request, undated.

1 17

Fowke, G.H., notice "To All Troops, All British Soldiers," regarding respecting the property of French inhabitants, 1918 October 29.

1 18

Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, clipping and autograph on a cabinet card, undated.

1 19

Freemasons Trowel and Triangle Club, humorous menu for Thanksgiving dinner in Paris, 1918.

1 20

Gallieni, Joseph, letter to Roquemaure, Paul, 1915 February 13.

1 21

Gibbons, Herbert A., booklet, "The American Soldier and Alsace-Lorraine", 1918 November 11.

1 22

Goltz, Horst von der (alias Bridgeman Taylor), sworn statement, 1916 April.

1 23

Graves, William S., letter to Page, Emmett D., 1919 September 25.

1 24

Haig, Douglas, autograph, 1919 February 25.

1 25

Harbord, James G., letters to Dave Robertson and "Classmates" which include biographical information and Harbord's opinions on the importance of shipping in wartime and Charles G. Dawes (General Purchasing Agent), 1917 December 30.

1 26

Hindenburg, Paul von, message to German youth, [1918].

1 27

Kilmer, Joyce, letter to Thomas Walsh and poem, "Wartime Christmas", 1918 April 17.

1 28

Le Printemps (department store), pocket diary with illustration of French and American flags and rooster, "a little souvenir book offered by the department store ... to the American officers and men passing through the Embarkation Camp No. 1, Saint-Nazaire, on their way back home", 1919.

1 29

Lissauer, Ernst, lyrics of "The Hymn of Hate", 1914.

1 30

Lloyd George, David to Mr. Adam, 1917 March 20.

1 31

Max, Adolphe, Brussels burgomaster, pass signed by, 1914 September 29.

1 32

Michelin et Cie, booklet, "Pages of American Glory", circa 1918-1919.

1 33

Page, Dr. Emmett D., envelope "passed by censor", undated.

1 34

Page, W.H., booklet, "The Union of Two Great Peoples", 1917 August 4.

5 35

Pétain, Marshall Philippe, photograph of presenting Williams, Richard N. with the Légion of Honor, 1919 April 10.

1 36

Poincaré, Raymond, letter to B[runeau], 1914.

1 37

Ruhleben Prison Camp, "The Ruhleben Song," from "Don't Laugh, A Revue in 8 Episodes", 1915 May 8.

1 38

Second Army Football Cup Final, flyer for match between 8th Black Watch and 1st Cameron Highlanders, 1918.

1 18

Thompson, Thomas W., Jr., ink sketch, 1918 June.

1 39

Vorst, B. van, booklet, "To the Homeward-Bound Americans", circa 1918-1919.

1 40

Wilhelm II, commutation of a court-martial sentence, 1917 December 10.

1 41

Williams, Richard N., type-written diary with photocopied memorabilia laid in, Volumes 1-2, 1917 April-1918 May.

1 42-43

Williams, Richard N., type-written diary with photocopied memorabilia laid in, Volumes 3-4, 1918 June-1919 May.

1 1-2

Williams, Richard N., disbound photo album of war-time photographs (most photographs are captioned), 1917-1919.

4 1

Wilson, Woodrow, letter to Whitlock, Joseph B., 1919 January 10.

2 3

Wilson, Woodrow, "Existence of War-German Empire by the President of the United States of America: A Proclamation", 1917 April 6.

2 4

Wilson, Woodrow, "Proclamation by the President to the People", 1917 April 15.

2 5

Zeppelin materials, including clippings, logbook about ballast distribution, and photographs, 1916 August 8-1916 September 24, undated.

2 6

Unidentified, Independence Day postcard and booklet, 1917-1918.

2 7

Unidentified, Salisbury Plain panoramic letter card to W.G. Neish, undated.

2 8

b. World War I booklets and leaflets.

1. Civilian booklets and leaflets.
Box Folder

British non-conscription and pacifist leaflets, issued by Anti-Conscription League, Bristol Peace Federation, British Socialist Party, British "Stop-the-War" Committee, East London Federation of the Workers' Suffrage League, International Brotherhood of Self-Helpers, International Christian Service League, Labor Leader, League against War and Conscription, and Mufti, circa 1914-1918.

2 9

British non-conscription and pacifist leaflets, issued by National Council against Conscription, National Council for Civil Liberties, Neutrality League, and No Conscription Fellowship, circa 1914-1918.

2 10

British non-conscription and pacifist leaflets, issued by North London Division Herald League, North London "Stop-the-War" Committee, Society of Friends, "Spur," Suffragettes of the W.S.P.U, Union of Democratic Control, Women's Freedom League, and Women's Union for Peace, circa 1914-1918.

2 11

British non-conscription and pacifist leaflets, issued by unidentified organizations, circa 1914-1918.

2 12

French leaflets satirizing Wilhelm II, newspapers, La Voix du Pays, and propaganda toilet paper, circa 1914-1918.

2 13
2. Military booklets and leaflets.
Box Folder

American Expeditionary Forces booklet and "memorandum" regarding "clean living" and protocol, circa 1917-1919.

2 14

British Expeditionary Forces propaganda leaflets (in German), circa 1914-1918.

2 15

French Army propaganda leaflets (in German), circa 1914-1918.

2 16

German Army propaganda leaflets (in English and French), circa 1914-1918.

2 17

c. Aftermath of World War I, collected correspondence and event records.

Box Folder

Churchill, Winston, speech about General Earl Haig, circa 1928.

2 18

Harbord, James G., speeches, "Address at Bois de Belleau," "Memories of Three Great Generals of France: Foch, Joffre, Petain," "Address at Ground-Breaking Ceremonies for Second Division Memorial, at Washington, D.C.," and "The Services of Supply from July 1918 to May 1919", 1923, 1930-1935.

2 19

Hindenburg, Paul von, letter from Dr. J. Trier, regarding Woodrow Wilson peace proposal investigations, with note and signature of Hindenburg (includes English translation), 1920 November 9.

2 20

Lawrence, T.E., letter to Morley regarding war books, 1929 July 29.

2 21

Ludendorff, Erich, letter to Mr. Kissell regarding attacks from America, 1922 November 20.

2 22

Pershing, John J., letter to John A. Stewart regarding not wishing to be considered a candidate for president, 1924 April 25.

2 23

War debt correspondence relating to anonymous payments (correspondents include Winston Churchill, Mrs. Herbert Musgrave, "Nina," the Right Honorable Lord Eustace Perry, Stella Perry, and the Right Honorable E. Wood, 1925 August-December.

2 24

Series II. R. Norris Williams material on the creation of his World War I collection, 1920-1968.

a. Correspondence, clippings, and notes regarding collection of books and manuscripts.

Box Folder

Allen, Harvey, typewritten quote from unidentified person (letterhead from Dartmouth College) about Allen's book Toward the Flame, undated.

3 1

Armstrong, Martin, promotional flyer for Novels and Stories, undated.

3 2

Bairnsfather, Bruce, notes by Williams on Fragments from France, undated.

3 3

Baker, Ray Stannard, newspaper clipping about Baker and his book, Woodrow Wilson: Life and Letters and article about Wilson by Walter B. Pitkin, 1940.

3 4

Barbusse, Henri, promotional material on Le Feu, 1916-1921.

3 5

Biddle, Charles J., letter to R. Norris Williams regarding Charles Codman's book, Contact, 1939 March 22.

3 6

Binding, Rudolf, book jacket excerpt for and quotes copied by Williams from A Fatalist at War, circa 1929.

3 7

Boyd, Thomas A., postcard to Herbert Faulkner and photograph of Boyd, 1935.

3 8

Breck, G.W. (Bill), obituary, undated.

3 9

Buffum, Thomas, letter to R. Norris Williams regarding his prisoner of war experiences in World War I, 1939 March 5.

3 10

Bullard, Robert Lee, obituary and drawing of Bullard by S.J. Woolf with quote, 1947.

3 11

Carpenter, Alfred F.B., newspaper clipping regarding Carpenter being baron of Zeebrugge and Dover and note by Williams regarding Carpenter's book, Blocking of Zeebrugge, 1943, undated.

3 12

Codman, Charles, review of his book, Contact, 1937.

3 13

Coulson, Thomas, book jacket excerpt for and notes by Williams about The queen of spies, Louise de Bettignies, 1936.

3 14

Crutwell, C.R.M.F., two illustrations possibly clipped from A history of the Great War, 1914-18, undated.

3 15

Derby, Richard, letter to R. Norris Williams regarding inscribing a copy of Wade in Sanitary and book jacket excerpts, 1935 October 14.

3 16

Dos Passos, John, letter to R. Norris Williams in response to Williams' letter accusing Dos Passos of "having a grudge against something when he wrote Three Soldiers", 1935 March 25, 1936 August 12.

3 17

Evans, E.R.G.R. (Edward Ratcliffe Garth Russell), newspaper clipping regarding his assignment as British Naval attache to Norway and Sweden, 1940 April 19.

3 18

Ewart, Wilfrid, newspaper clipping regarding his book, Way of Revelation (referred to in clipping as War of Revelation), circa 1921.

3 19

Ford, Madox Ford, obituary, 1939.

3 20

Fussell, Paul, letter to Betsy regarding the diary of R. Norris Williams, 1988 September 10.

3 21

Genet, Edmond, promotional material for the book War Letters of Edmond Genet, 1918.

3 22

Goltz, Horst von der, letters to and from R. Norris Williams regarding his letter to the Saturday Evening Post, includes the published letter and correspondence with staff of the  Saturday Evening Post, 1938 January-February.

3 23

Hall, James N., envelope addressed to R. Norris Williams, 1939.

3 24

Harbord, James G., letters to and from R. Norris Williams, book jacket cover for America in the World War, and obituary (included in October 12, 1933 letter: copies of 1917 letters, clipping with photograph, and printed telegram to Harbord from General Hunter Liggett), 1927-1947.

3 25

House, Edward, newspaper clippings, 1938.

3 26

Jellicoe, Earl, obituary, 1934.

3 27

Keynes, John Maynard, clipping regarding his proposal for a world currency, undated.

3 28

Kilmer, Joyce, book review and bookseller's listing for Yanks, circa 1934.

3 29

Lafayette Escadrille, clippings regarding and obituaries for members of (including Tommy Hitchcock, Charles Nordhoff, Norman Prince, William Thaw, and Colonel G. Thenault), 1934-1944.

3 30

Lawrence, Thomas E., clipping, bookseller's listing, and obituary, circa 1935.

3 31

Liebknecht, Karl, bookseller's listing regarding Das Zuchthausurteil gegen Karl Liebknecht, a verbatim report of the trial of Liebknecht in 1916, undated.

3 32

Liggett, Hunter, obituaries, 1935.

3 33

Lockhart, R.H. Bruce, book jacket excerpt for Memoirs of A British Agent, circa 1932.

3 34

Loomis, Elizabeth E. Farnsworth, letter to R. Norris Williams informing him that she was sending him a copy of her brother's letters (letters from Farnsworth do not appear to be in the collection, although possibly referring to Letters of Henry Weston Farnsworth of the Foreign Legion), 1936 April 22.

3 35

Lutz, Ralph H. letter to R. Norris Williams regarding Why We Fought, 1935 January 17.

3 36

Machen, Arthur, obituary, 1947 December 16.

3 37

Mademoiselle from Armentieres, request for authentic war-time stanzas and cartoon, undated.

3 38

Manning, Frederic, clipping and excised section of Hamlet, relates to T.E. Lawrence, undated.

3 39

"Mark VII," newspaper clipping regarding his book, A Subaltern on the Somme, circa 1928.

3 40

Mata Hari, article about, written by Russell Warren Howe in Smithsonian, 1986 May.

3 41

McCrae, John, bookseller's listing regarding In the Day of Battle: Poems of the Great War and  In Flanders Fields and Other Poems, 1935.

3 42

McFee, William, bookseller's listing for Command, undated.

3 43

Muir, Percival H. of Elkin Mathews, Limited, letters to R. Norris Williams regarding Paul von Hindenburg note (box 1, folder 27) and other war-time books, 1936-1937.

3 44

Orpen, William, notes by Williams about and reproductions of "An Onlooker in France," and photographs of A Meeting of the Peace Conference, on which Orpen's painting is based, circa 1921.

3 45

Pershing, John J., newspaper clipping regarding the commencement ceremonies at West Point, 1936 June 13.

3 46

Pétain, Philippe, obituaries and clipped illustration of map of Verdun, 1951.

3 47

Reed, John, notes by Williams about and bookseller's listing for Ten Days that Shook the World, circa 1938.

3 48

Remarque, Erich Maria, newspaper clippings regarding the deprivation of his German citizenship under Hitler, 1941.

3 48

Roberts, William Henry, poem congratulating him on his 90th birthday, 1963 January 8.

3 50

Russell, Bertrand, bookseller's listing for Justice in War and newspaper clippings regarding his dismissal from the Barnes Foundation and his revision of thoughts on pacifism at the rise of Hitler, 1940-1943.

3 51

Seeger, Alan, bookseller's listing for Poems and  Poems of the Great War, undated.

3 52

Sullivan, Mark, clipped article from Time, Volume XXVI, Number 21, 1935 November 18.

3 53

Tansill, Charles Callan, bookseller listing for and article about America Goes to War , 1938.

3 54

Tuchman, Barbara W., book jacket biography, probably from Guns of August, circa 1962.

3 55

Viereck, George Sylvester, newspaper clipping about Viereck being sentenced to 2 to 6 years and obituary, 1942, 1962.

5 56

von Rintelen, Franz, newspaper clippings, 1939-1940.

3 57

Walpole, Hugh, bookseller listing for and notes by Williams about the Dark Forest, circa 1938.

3 58

Williams, R. Norris, bibliographic cards recording items within his collection, circa 1930s.


Williams, R. Norris, notes regarding items purchased and information on people, events, or books, circa 1930s.

3 59

Willis, Harold B., letter to R. Norris Williams, describing his experiences as prisoner of war, 1940 January 17.

3 60

Winterich, John T., letter to R. Norris Williams regarding Songs of the Trenches by H.A. Gibbons, 1935 April 25.

3 61

Woollcott, Alexander, obituary, undated.

3 62

b. Maps and research by R. Norris Williams.

Box Folder

Battle of the Marne, hand-drawn map and explanation of events taking place from September 2 to September 14, 1914, undated.

2 25

Chronology and maps of World War 1, hand-drawn maps, hand-written timelines, and detailed descriptions of battles, undated.

2 26